لوح بھی تو قلم بھی تو تیرا وجود الکتاب
گنبدِ آبگینہ رنگ تیرے محیط میں حباب
عالمِ آب و خاک میں تیرے ظہور سے فروغ
ذرہ ریگ کو دیا تو نے طلوعِ آفتاب
شوکتِ سنجر و سلیم تیرے جلال کی نمود
فقر و جنید بایزید تیرا جمال بے نقاب
شوق تیرا اگر نہ ہو میری نماز کا امام
میرا قیام بھی حجاب میرا سجود بھی حجاب
تیری نگاہِ ناز سے دونوں مراد پاگئے
عقل غیاب و جستجو عشق حضور و اضطراب
By Dr. Ibrahim Ayati
Dr Muhammad Iqbal (1877- 1938) known to the world as the Poet-Philosopher of the East, devoted his life to awaken the Muslim Ummah and to make it pursue the path of spirituality, knowledge, jihad, sacrifice and martyrdom.
Dr Iqbal had an abiding faith in Ahlul Bayt (the Chosen Descendants of the Holy Prophet PBUH). He was intensely moved by the tragic events of Karbala so much so that in many of his couplets he carried a universal message to the mankind for emulating Imam Husayn who sacrificed his life at the altar of Truth. His elegies on the martyrdom of Imam Husayn stand unmatched and are an eye-opener to all those who are giving a mere lip-service to Islam.
In the following couplets Dr Iqbal gives vent to his sentiments and feelings on Imam Husayn (AS):
جس طرح مجھ کو شہید ِ کربلا سے پیار ہے
حق تعالیٰ کو یتیموں کی دعا ہے پیار ہے
Dr Iqbal expresses his extreme love for Imam Husayn. Just as Almighty Allah loves to listen to the invocation of the orphans, he also has the same kind of love for the martyr of Karbala.
رونے والا ہوں شہید ِ کربلا کے غم میں میں
کیا درِ مقصود نہ دیں گے ساقیِ کوثر مجھے
Dr Iqbal has a sincere and genuine faith in Imam Husayn. The hero of this episode Imam Husayn, the brave son of the bravest of the brave Ali and grandson of the Holy Prophet, took up a firm stand not to acknowledge Yazid as the Caliph of Islam. It is a fight for the preservation of the principles and tenets of Islam. Imam Husayn arrived in Karbala on the 2nd of Muharram 61 A.H. along with his small children, women, and some comrades numbering 72 only. On the l0th of Muharram he was brutally killed. This was the tragedy over which Iqbal sheds tears. He believes that mourning and wailing over him would lead to his (Iqbal’s) salvation. He also believes that Saqi-e-Kauthar Lord of Kauthar (Cistern in Paradise) Imam Ali loves those, who weep for Imam Husayn. He hopes and prays that since he sheds tears out of grief for Husyan, Imam Ali would give him all the help he needs.
غریب و سادہ و رنگیں ہے داستانِ حرم
نہایت اس کی حسین ابتدا ہے اسماعیل
Dr Iqbal says that the event of the construction of Kaba is very simple and interesting. Prophet Ismail suffered great pains in its construction. The Holy Prophet purged it from the idols that were in it, and so raised its glory. The first stone was laid by Ismail indeed. He offered for sacrifice his own life but the sacrifice was not completed as he was replaced by a ram and according to the Holy Qur’an the great sacrifice or Zibh-e ‘Azim was to come later and completed by one of his descendants, Husayn. So in fact culmination of the spirit of love for Allah was manifest when Imam Husayn sacrificed his life and preserved the dignity of the Holy Kaba.
حقیقتِ ابدی ہے مقامِ شبیری
بدلتے رہتے ہیں انداذِ کوفی و شامی
Dr Iqbal here compares two things Shabbiri or Husayniyat, i-e. principles enunciated and adhered to by Imam Husayn, and Yazidiyat, i.e. worldly power and authority. Husayn was the symbol of devotion to and love for Allah, i.e. submission to none except Allah.
The spirit as shown by the rulers of Kufa and Syria, is always changing since it tries to gain strength through fraud, dishonesty, and political expediency and manoeuvring as against this truth never changes. So the place Imam Husayn has achieved, is a reality which shall be hailed and acknowledged for all times to come.
قافلہِ حجاز میں ایک حسین بھی نہیں
گرچہ ہے تابدار ابھی گیسوئے داجلہ و فرات
Dr Iqbal was distressed to note that Iraq was under the yoke of the British. He was disappointed that the Muslims had lost courage and were suffering humiliation. The land of Tigres and Eupharates called some staunch devotee of Islam who could relieve them of their serfdom. Iqbal only wished a man, a follower of Imam Husayn might come up to help the Muslims of Iraq!
صدقِ خلیل بھی ہے عشق صبرِ حسین بھی ہے عشق
معرکہ وجود میں بدر و حنین بھی ہے عشق
Dr Iqbal says that love of Allah manifests itself in many ways. Prophet Ibrahim had to suffer many difficulties in the cause of Allah. He accepted being thrown into the fire, and the fire was turned into a blooming garden.
It showed his intense love for Allah. Our Holy Prophet conquered the Battles of Badr and Hunayn through his ardent love for Allah. Similarly Imam Husayn showed his patience in the battlefield of Karbala where he, with his family and comrades, not only suffered the pangs of three days’ thirst, but willingly sacrificed his life for the cause of Truth and love for Allah. Love for Allah is a quality, a force, an impetus, which creates in us extraordinary patience and forbearance.
اک فقر ہے شبیری اس فقر میں ہے میری
میراث ِ مسلمانی،سرمایہِ شبیری
Dr Iqbal says that the life of a dervish is a very noble way of living but it is different from the life of a mendicant or friar who lives on begging or in seclusion. We should learn from Imam Husayn who while passing the life of a dervish had no other consideration except love of Allah and submission to His will. Our treading the path practised by Imam Husayn will bestow on us the title of Chief among the people. A Muslim has inherited this wealth from Imam Husayn, and we should make the best use of it. Imam Husayn has given us the lesson of self-sacrifice, patience, and forbearance and submission to none except Allah.
آن امام عاشقان پور بتول
سرو آزادی ز بستان رسول
Ān Imam-e-āshiqān pooray Batool
Sarvay āzādi ze bustān-e-Rasul
Now Dr Iqbal opens his praises for the son of Lady Fatima. He was the chief of the lovers of Allah, and an evergreen tree from the garden of the Prophet. Imam Husayn who stood against the forces of evil, refused to acknowledge Yazid as the Caliph of Islam, and upholding the dignity of Islamic principles sacrificed his life along with a small band of 72 of his followers, at the battlefield of Karbala.
اللہ اللہ بای بسم اللہ پدر
معنی ذبح عظیم آمد پسر
Allah Allah Bāey Bismillah pidar
Ma’niye zibh-e-azim āmad pisar
In a state of supreme bliss Dr Iqbal says, “O’ Allah, what an exalted position Imam Husayn possessed, as his illustrious father (Imam Ali) was the first letter of the Qur’an! A tradition says that Imam Ali said, “What is in the Holy Qur’an is in the first chapter (Surah Fatiha); what is in this surah (chapter) is in the first verse (Bismillah); what is in Bismillah is in its first letter (Ba) and I am the dot below ba. Doubtless Imam Ali was acknowledged to be the best expounder of the Holy Qur’an. The Holy Prophet had himself declared: “Ali is with Qur’an, and Qur’an is with Ali”. Imam Husayn was the son of such an eminent personality. It is Imam Husayn’s Martyrdom which is referred to as Zibhe Azim the greatest sacrifice in the Holy Qur’an. Imam Husayn was the direct descendant of Prophet Ismail and had offered himself for sacrifice at Karbala to save Islamic principles from annihilation. The Holy Qur’an says that Zibhe Azim, the great sacrifice of Prophet Ismail was left over for the coming generation. Dr Iqbal alludes to this and says that Zibhe Azim in the Holy Qur’an means the sacrifice of Imam Husayn.
بہر آن شہزادہ ی خیر الملل
دوش ختم المرسلین نعم الجمل
Bahray ān shahzādaey Khayrul milal
Dosh-e-Khatmul mursalin ne’mul Jamal
Dr Iqbal here alludes to an event stated by Tirmizi and others. Once Imam Husayn mounted the shoulders of his grandfather, the Holy Prophet. Somebody said, “What a good carriage it is!” The Prophet said, “And what a good rider it is!” Dr Iqbal mentions this event to show what affectionate feelings the Holy Prophet had towards his grandson.
سرخ رو عشق غیور از خون او
شوخی این مصرع از مضمون او
Surkh roo ishq-e-ghayoor az Khoon-e-oo
Surkhiye in misra az mazmoon-e-oo
Dr Iqbal says that it is because of Imam Husayn’s blood that the modest love has gained honour and dignity. This couplet can well serve a title for the episode of the Tragedy of Karbala which shows how piously and valiantly Imam Husayn defended the tenets of Islam, sacrificed his own life along with his kith and kin, sincere followers, and comrades, and raised the honour of love to its acme.
در میان امت ان کیوان جناب
ہمچو حرف قل ہو اللہ در کتاب
Darmiyān-e-Ummat ān Keywān janāb,
Hamchu harf-e-Qul Huwallah dar Kitāb
Dr Iqbal shows here the position of Imam Husayn. He says that among the followers of the Holy Prophet Imam Husayn is like the Divine phrase QuI huwallah (Say He is Allah) meaning that Allah is One, in the Holy Qur’an. Since the entire Holy Qur’an turns to this verse -QuI Huwallaho Ahad (Say that He is One) similarly the whole Islamic world turns towards Imam Husayn who is the source of our guidance. Dr Iqbal knows the tradition of our Prophet: “Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn” i.e. Husayn is his grandson and that he (the Prophet) would be made known by him, and his mission would be fulfilled by Imam Husayn who sacrificed his life to immortalize Islam and its tenets.
موسیٰ و فرعون و شبیر و یزید
این دو قوت از حیات آید پدید
Musa o Firaun-o-Shabbir or Yazid
In do quwwāt az Hayāt āmad padid.
Ever since the creation of life two opposing forces have been at war with each other- virtue and vice, Right and wrong. Musa (Moses) rose against Firaun (Pharoah) and Shabbir (Imam Husayn) rose against Yazid. These struggles were between the Right and the wrong. Consequently the Right prevailed upon the wrong and it was proved that Right is might.
زندہ حق از قوت شبیری است
باطل آخر داغ حسرت میری است
Zindah haq az quwwat-e-Shabbiri ast
Bātil ākhir dāgh-e-hasrat miri ast
Dr Iqbal says that Truth or Islam exists today because of the strength shown and the spiritual power exercised by Imam Husayn. In other words Imam Husayn made Islam immortal. The wrong was crushed to annihilation in spite of its apparent success. Yazidism or the principle enunciated by Yazid is looked down upon by all, but Husayn’s blood spilled at Karbala still enlivens our hearts and makes us feel that his sacrifice to support the Right against the wrong was unparalleled in the history of mankind.
چون خلافت رشتہ از قرآن گسیخت
حریت را زہر اندر کام ریخت
خاست آن سر جلوہ ی خیرالامم
چون سحاب قبلہ باران در قدم
بر زمین کربلا بارید و رفت
لالہ در ویرانہ ہا کارید و رفت
تا قیامت قطع استبداد کرد
موج خون او چمن ایجاد کرد
Choon Khitlāfat rishtah az Qur’an gusikht
Hurriyat ra Zahr under Kām rikht
Khāst ān sar Jatwaey Khairut Umam
Choon Sahabe Qibtah Bārān dar qadam
Bar zamin-e-Karbala Bārid o raft
Lalah dar wirānaha Kārid o raft
Tā qayāmat qat’ay istibdād kard
Mauje Khoone oo chaman ijād kard
Dr Iqbal says that when the Islamic Government severed its relation with the injunctions of the Holy Qur’an the Muslims suffered moral degradation. It marred their freedom. When the rulers indulged in all sorts of vicious habits and satisfied their carnal desires against the clear-cut injunctions of the Holy Qur’an the whole social structure was impaired. Nobody could utter a word against the tyrant ruler and his associates. Then arose that chief of the Muslims (Husayn), like blessed cloud with rain of mercy under his foot. It rained blessings on the sands of Karbala and turned that desert into a garden. It is the place where Imam Husayn with his kith and kin, children and comrades, numbering 72 only, faced a huge army and courted martyrdom after three days starvation and thirst on the l0th of Muharram 61 A.H. Husayn was undoubtedly the saviour of freedom and Karbala has become the symbol of struggle against tyranny. Husayn’s role at Karbala was so magnificent that it eradicated for ever the savage idea of cruelty and cold-bloodedness. The wave of his blood has created a garden which is symbolic of his sacrifice for the preservation of freedom and Truth.
بہر حق در خاک و خون غلتیدہ است
پس بنای لاالہ گردیدہ است
Bahre haq dar Khāk-o-khoon ghaltida ast
Pas binā ey lā illah gardida ast
Dr Iqbal says that Imam Husayn voluntarily gave his life at Karbala for the sake of Allah or Truth. So it goes without saying that Husayn laid the foundation of the cardinal Principle of Islam -the belief that there is no god except Allah. Since Islamic principles were being twisted, distorted and exterminated it was Husayn’s blood which gave it a new life.
مدعایش سلطنت بودی اگر
خود نکردی با چنین سامان سفر
Mudda ā yash saltanat boody agar
Khud na hardy bā chunin sāmmāne safar
That Imam Husayn’s only aim in refusing to accept Yazid as Caliph of Islam was to preserve Islam, can be borne out from the fact that while he left Madina for his journey towards Kufa he had a small band of his relations and followers, including women, and children. Had he the intention of fighting a political battle he would not have gone there with such people as he took with him. Those who accompanied Imam Husayn included his sisters, wives, children (even a six month old child was with him) and some followers, some of whom were more than eighty years of age.
دشمنان چون ریگ صحرا لاتعد
دوستان او بہ یزدان ہم عدد
Dushmanān chun rig-e-sahra la tu’ad
Dostān-e-oo bā yazdān ham ‘adad
In the Battle of Karbala the number of the enemy was as countless as the particles of sand, but the number of Imam Husayn’s friends was only 72.
تیغ لا چون از میان بیرون کشید
از رگ ارباب باطل خون کشید
نقش الا اللہ بر صحرا نوشت
سطر عنوان نجات ما نوشت
رمز قرآن از حسین آموختیم
ز آتش او شعلہ ہا اندوختیم
Tigh-e-lā choon az miyan buroon kashid
Az rag-e-arbābe bātil khoon kashid
Naqsh-e-Illallāh bar Sahra nawisht
Satre-unwān-e-najat-e mā nawisht
Ramz-e-Qur’an az Husayn āmokhteem
Za Ātishe-oo Shoalahā andokhteem
Imam Husayn took up his sword of ‘La’ or ‘No’ that is, there is no deity (except Allah) and crushed infidelity. He imprinted the mark of Illallah (Tawhid), or monotheism in the wilderness of Karbala. It was a title for our salvation. In fact we have learnt the lesson of Tawhid or monotheism from Imam Husayn, who taught us in a practical way the secret of Qur’an by sacrificing his life for the sake of Allah and for completing the mission of his grandfather, the Prophet. We have gathered warmth from the fire of love for Allah that Imam Husayn possessed. Dr Iqbal means that the love for Allah shown and the sacrifice made by Imam Husayn at Karbala should serve as the best lesson for all the people of the world.
شوکت شام و فر بغداد رفت
سطوت غرناطہ ہم از یاد رفت
تار ما از زخمہ اش لرزان ہنوز
تازہ از تکبیر او ایمان ہنوز
Shawkat-e-Shām-o farray Baghdad raft,
Satwat-e-Ghamata ham az yād raft
Tār-e-mā az zakhma ash larzān hanooz,
Tazāh az takbir-e-oo Imān hanooz
Dr Iqbal says that kingly grandeur gained through political battles never survives. The pomp and vanity of the thrones of Syria and Baghdad which were once seats of great kings is no more present. Nobody remembers the splendour of Gharnata in which was the seat of Spanish Kings. But the reverential call of Husayn at Karbala – his call of La Illāhā Illāllāh is still echoing in our ears and thrilling our hearts.
ای صبا ای پیک دور افتادگان
اشک ما بر خاک پاک او رسان
Ay sabā ay payk-e-dūr uftādagān,
Ashk-e-mā bar khāk-e-pāk-e-oo rasān
Iqbal’s intense love for and faith in Imam Husayn is apparent from this couplet. Fondly addressing the breeze that proverbially carries the message of the lover to the beloved who is at a remote place. Iqbal asks her to carry his tears to the sacred tomb of Imam Husayn. Dr Iqbal weeps in sad and blessed memory of Imam Husayn and wishes to place his tears over his Imam’s grave.
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
اَللّٰھُمَّ صَلِّ عَلٰی مُحَمَّدٍ وَّعَلٰٓی اٰلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
By Syeda Qudsiya Mashhadi
Great praise and display of love and reverence for the Prophet of Islam [ﷺ] has swept the world in the wake of a blasphemous film, a creation of some evil minds. We as Muslims have love of Prophet [ﷺ] in our blood and the beautiful homage to our beloved Prophet [ﷺ] by great Muslim poets and philosophers like Rumi, Jami, Ameer Khusro and Allama Iqbal are well known to us. But do we know what great men from the Occident think about our Holiest of the Prophets [ﷺ]? One is not surprised after reading these commendations from non-Muslims as the person of Prophet Mohammad [ﷺ] is that glorious Truth who no enlightened and insightful individual can deny. Here, I share some of the tributes to our Prophet Mohammad [ﷺ] by the best of the West.
This is an extract from Michael H. Hart’s book, ‘The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History’. He explains why he chose Prophet Mohammad [ﷺ] for the no. 1 spot amongst the hundred most influential people of all times:
“My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular levels. Muhammad founded and promulgated one of the world’s great religions, and became an immensely effective political leader. Today, Islam exerts an enormous influence upon the lives of its followers. It is for this reason that the founders of the world’s great religions all figure prominently in this book. Since there are roughly twice as many Christians as Moslems in the world, it may initially seem strange that Muhammad has been ranked higher than Jesus. There are two principal reasons for that decision.
First, Muhammad played a far more important role in the development of Islam than Jesus did in the development of Christianity. Although Jesus was responsible for the main ethical and moral precepts of Christianity (insofar as these differed from Judaism), St. Paul was the main developer of Christian theology, its principal proselytizer, and the author of a large portion of the New Testament.
Muhammad, however, was responsible for both the theology of Islam and its main ethical and moral principles. In addition, he played the key role in proselytizing the new faith, and in establishing the religious practices of Islam.
Moreover, he is the author of the Moslem Holy Scriptures, the Koran, a collection of certain of Muhammad’s insights that he believed had been directly revealed to him by Allah. Most of these utterances were copied more or less faithfully during Muhammad’s lifetime and were collected together in authoritative form not long after his death. The Quran therefore, closely represents Muhammad’s ideas and teachings and to a considerable extent his exact words.
No such detailed compilation of the teachings of Christ has survived. Since the Koran is at least as important to Moslems as the Bible is to Christians, the influence of Muhammed through the medium of the Koran has been enormous. It is probable that the relative influence of Muhammad on Islam has been larger than the combined influence of Jesus Christ and St. Paul on Christianity.
On the purely religious level, then, it seems likely that Muhammad has been as influential in human history as Jesus. Furthermore, Muhammad (unlike Jesus) was a secular as well as a religious leader. In fact, as the driving force behind the Arab conquests, he may well rank as the most influential political leader of all time… the Arab conquests of the seventh century have continued to play an important role in human history, down to the present day. It is this unparalleled combination of secular and religious influence which I feel entitles Muhammad to be considered the most influential single figure in human history.”
The British philosopher, Thomas Carlyle, who won the Nobel Prize for his book ‘The Heroes’ wrote:
“It is a great shame for anyone to listen to the accusation that Islam is a lie and that Muhammad was a fabricator and a deceiver. We saw that he remained steadfast upon his principles, with firm determination; kind and generous, compassionate, pious, virtuous, with real manhood, hardworking and sincere. Besides all these qualities, he was lenient with others, tolerant, kind, cheerful and praiseworthy and perhaps he would joke and tease his companions. He was just, truthful, smart, pure, magnanimous and present-minded; his face was radiant as if he had lights within him to illuminate the darkest of nights; he was a great man by nature who was not educated in a school nor nurtured by a teacher as he was not in need of any of this.”
In his ‘Heroes and Hero-worship’, he says:
“How one man single-handedly, could weld warring tribes and wandering Bedouins into a most powerful and civilized nation in less than two decades”
“The lies (Western slander) which well-meaning zeal has heaped round this man (Muhammad) are disgraceful to us only.”
“A silent great soul, one of that who cannot but be earnest. He was to kindle the world; the world’s Maker had ordered so.”
Sir George Bernard Shaw [1856-1950] Irish playwright, critic and political activist said:
“I have always held the religion of Mohammad in high estimation because of its wonderful vitality. It is the only religion which appears to me to possess that assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence which can make itself appeal to every age. I have studied him – the wonderful man and in my opinion, far from being an anti-Christ, he must be called the Saviour of humanity.”
At another place he said about the Prophet [ﷺ]:
“He must be called the saviour of humanity. I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it much-needed peace and happiness.”
[The Genuine Islam, Vol 1, 1936]
Leo Tolstoy [1828-1920], Russian Writer, Novelist, Essayist, Philosopher and Educational Reformer said:
“There is no doubt that Prophet Mohammad is one of the greatest reformers who served the social framework profoundly. It suffices him that he led a whole nation to the enlightenment of truth and made it more inclined towards tranquility and peace, prefer modesty and prevented it from shedding blood and giving human sacrifices (though this was never proved against Arabs before Islam) and widely opened to it the gate to development and civilization. This is a great deed that only a strong man can do and a man like that deserves to be regarded with respect and admiration.”
Pierre Simon Laplace [1749-1827], French mathematician and astronomer said:
“Although we do not believe in Divine religions, Hazret Muhammad’s ritual and his percepts are two social exemplars for humanity’s life. So we confess that the advent of his religion and its wise rules have been great and valuable. Therefore we are not needless of Muhammad’s instructions.”
Alphonse de Lamartine, the renowned French historian, speaking on the essentials of human greatness wonders in ‘Histoire De La Turquie’, (Paris, 1854, Vol. II, p 276-277)
“If greatness of purpose, smallness of means and astounding results are the three criteria of human genius, who could dare to compare any great man in modern history with Muhammad?
The most famous men created arms, laws and empires only. They founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers which often crumbled away before their eyes. This man moved not only armies, legislation, empires, peoples and dynasties, but millions of men in one-third of the then inhabited world; and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs and souls. His forbearance in victory, his ambition, which was entirely devoted to one idea and in no manner striving for an empire;
His endless prayers, his mystic conversations with God, his death and his triumph after death; All these attest not to an imposture but to a firm conviction which gave him the power to restore a dogma. This dogma was two-fold, the unity of God and the immateriality of God; the former telling what God is, the latter telling what God is not; the one overthrowing false gods with the sword, the other starting an idea with the words.
“Philosopher, orator, apostle, legislator, warrior, conqueror of ideas, restorer of rational dogmas, of a cult without images, the founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire that is MUHAMMAD
As regards all the standards by which Human Greatness may be measured, we may well ask,
IS THERE ANY MAN GREATER THAN HE?”
Indeed, there is none.
قوت عشق سے ہر پست کو بالا کر دے
دہر ميں اسم محمد سے اجالا کر دے