There is no future for apartheid Israel


“No one people has a monopoly on human suffering and every ethnic tragedy stands on its own.

If I were a Jew or Gypsy, Nazi barbarity would be the most atrocious event in history. If I were a Black African, it would be slavery and apartheid. If I were a Native American, it would be the discovery of the New World by European explorers and settlers that resulted in near-total extermination. If I were an Armenian, it would be the Ottoman massacres.

I happen to be a Palestinian, and for me it is the Nakba.

Humanity should consider all the above repugnant. I do not consider it advisable to debate hierarchies of suffering. I do not know how to quantify pain or measure suffering. I do know that we are not children of a lesser God.”

Afif Safieh – Palestinian diplomat

Palestinian protesters burn an Israeli flag during clashes with Israeli troops near Israel's Ofer Prison, near the West Bank city of Ramallah May 16, 2014. (Reuters/Mohamad Torokman)

Palestinian protesters burn an Israeli flag during clashes with Israeli troops near Israel’s Ofer Prison, near the West Bank city of Ramallah May 16, 2014. (Reuters/Mohamad Torokman)

But for those on the receiving end what a largely desensitized world considers “tired” and “routine” bespeaks terror and brutality. Given the lack of intervention on the part of the international community whenever an Israeli security crackdown occurs, it is evident by now that a tacit acceptance has taken root to the effect that massacring Palestinians has been elevated to the level of bloodsport within Israeli society.

For those of us who still care about the plight of a people whose only crime is that they exist on land coveted by a settler colonial state, the latest manifestation of Israel’s disregard for international law and human rights is as good a reason as any for closer examination. In so doing, we must call upon the greatest teacher of them all: history.

Most empires and colonial projects fall under the weight of their own contradictions, but usually over a protracted period of resistance, both passive and active, on the part of its victims. At the same time the material privileges gained from the exploitation and expropriation of a colonized people acts as a slow-acting corrosive on the society of the colonizing state, poisoning it with racism and hatred for those it has colonized as it seeks to justify the material privileges and psychological sense of supremacy and national pride that accrues from that colonization. This moral decay is commonly reflected in the degeneration that takes place in the armed forces of the state in question, where the emphasis of the troops shifts from self-sacrifice and heroism in support of a just and galvanizing cause to personal survival as demoralization sets in.

In other words, the day-to-day reality of perpetuating oppression and injustice overcomes any amount of national propaganda in support of that oppression. In this, the case of American troops in Vietnam is a prime example.

There, the reality on the ground of killing and being killed in a country thousands of miles from home in an ignoble war eventually proved stronger than the propaganda the troops had been fed that they were fighting in the cause of freedom. This resulted in a widespread and growing breakdown in discipline, almost to the point where the US military effort in Vietnam was in danger of complete collapse. It might even be argued that on a certain level atrocities like My Lai were informed by a projection of the self-loathing experienced by more and more American troops in the field as the reality of the injustices they were committing took hold.

Another and contemporary example of this moral degeneration is the case of the Orwellian-named Israel Defense Forces. More than any other, the IDF is a product of the constructed mythology that has sustained Israel since its creation in 1948. It is a mythology which combines both a biblical and political justification for the state’s existence. On the one hand it constitutes the realization of an ancient covenant in which the land of historic Palestine was promised by God to the Israelites, the descendants of Abraham, over 2,000 years ago, while on the other hand it is the fulfillment of the Zionist postulate that in a world that is irredeemably anti-Semitic the Jewish people, hitherto stateless, would never find peace and security until they had a state of their own.

While the former can instantly be dismissed as obscurantist poppycock, it must be said that the second of the aforementioned philosophical arguments in support of Israel’s existence reflects a concrete historical reality in the shape of the wave of anti-Semitism that swept across Europe in the latter part of the 19th century, and which gave rise to the emergence of Zionism.

Israeli Defense Force soldiers set off on a tracking drill near Tze'elim in southern Israel June 9, 2014. (Reuters)

Israeli Defense Force soldiers set off on a tracking drill near Tze’elim in southern Israel June 9, 2014. (Reuters)

If anyone was still in any doubt as to the power behind the early proponents of calls for a Jewish state, as the vast majority of Jews around the world were for decades, the inimitable horrors of the Holocaust in the Second World War instantly dispelled them. Indeed, the psychological impact of the Holocaust on the Jewish people cannot be underestimated even today, despite it proving fertile ground for the extreme nationalism that has taken root within a significant section of Israeli society.

No matter the impact of the Holocaust on Israel, however, it can never justify the decades of injustice suffered by the Palestinian people as a consequence, else we describe a world in which the only answer to oppression is oppression. Moreover, the victims of the Nazi Holocaust share a bond of humanity with victims of every other genocide and state sanctioned crimes against humanity throughout history. It is a bond that transcends ethnicity, religion and/or nationality, and which embraces the many thousands of Palestinian victims of the Nakba and the millions more subsequently rendered stateless and refugees as a consequence.

Desperate propaganda

The romantic ideals attached to the pioneering spirit of the founders of Israel, along with international sympathy for a people who’d suffered such grotesque brutality at the hands of the Nazis, imbued the nascent state with a sense of purpose and destiny that helped mask the atrocities being carried out in its name.

A mythology of heroism and bravery was already well on the way to being constructed in 1948 when it came to Zionist militia organizations like the Haganah and Irgun. It was a mythology that continued on into the ranks of IDF when Israel was founded in 1948, embodied in the adoption of the state’s guiding “purity of arms” ethos, one designed to give romantic flavor to the militarism that sits at its heart. Yet in truth the ranks of the Haganah, Irgun and various other militia groups were filled with racist killers massacring men, women and children in order to fulfill the biblical and national destinies previously mentioned.

This toxic mix of racism and exceptionalism has led to the existence of a state that since its formation has viewed its repeated violations of international law and its crimes against humanity entirely justified. So deeply ingrained is the biblical and historical justification for Israel’s continued depredations against the Palestinians that when it comes to international condemnation of its crimes, rather than a cause for reflection and introspection within Israeli society, for many it merely serves to reaffirm Israel’s view of itself as the last bastion of defense of the Jewish people in a hostile world.

The day-to-day reality of this corrosive outlook involves young Israeli soldiers, mostly conscripts, humiliating, intimidating and brutalizing civilians at checkpoints, or killing Palestinians and Arabs in general in the knowledge they are able to do so with relative impunity.

Israeli soldiers take part in an operation to locate three Israeli teens near the West Bank City of Hebron June 21, 2014. (Reuters)

Israeli soldiers take part in an operation to locate three Israeli teens near the West Bank City of Hebron June 21, 2014. (Reuters)

But when those same soldiers come up against a determined and dogged resistance on the ground, such as they did in 2006 during the brief war against Hezbollah in southern Lebanon, their resolve crumbles and they are defeated. This is key to understanding why Israel, just like its chief sponsor the US when it comes to its own military operations, has come to rely on an advanced arsenal of missiles, aircraft, helicopter gunships, drones and tanks in its continuing conflict with the entire population of Gaza for the crime of exercising its right to elect a government of its own choosing.

Such would be the demoralizing effect not only on the troops but also and more importantly on Israeli society at large. Israel knows it cannot afford to sustain heavy casualties during its repeated military operations against a largely unarmed population.

To put it another way, while Israeli troops are more than willing to kill to maintain the material privileges attached to living in a settler colonial state, one in which their consumer lifestyles are subsidized by the West, they have consistently demonstrated a reluctance to die for those privileges. Evidence of the increased pressure that Israel is under is reflected in the growing desperation of its propaganda in painting the motivation of its growing number of critics and opponents as being founded in anti-Semitism. But where previously such calumniation would have been suffice to silence dissenting voices, now it merely discredits Israel’s supporters and apologists further.

Throughout history, humanity has been locked in struggle between oppressor and oppressed. It is a struggle that has posed the same question to each succeeding generation: Whose side are you on?

Israel as an apartheid state has no future. Only as a state which embraces the concept of universal human rights, justice and dignity for all who share the same land can it ensure the peace and security of its people. More than any other this is the abiding lesson of history.

Courtesy: http://rt.com/op-edge/170912-israel-no-furute-apartheid/

10th Ramadan – Death Anniversary of Sayyeda Khadija (RA) – Role Model for Muslim Women


Khadija RA

The great Muslim lady Hazrat Khadijah (RA) passed away on 10th Ramadhan in the tenth year of Hijrah, 620 CE, at the age of 65.
Her death was a great loss to the Prophet (PBUH). The Holy Prophet (PBUH) was grieved to the extent that he declared the year of death of Hazrat Abu Talib (RA) and Hazrat Khadija (RA) as Aam- ul-Huzn i.e. the year of mourning.
Sayyiduna Rasoolullah’s (PBUH) marriage with Sayyidah Khadija (RA) took place about fifteen years before the beginning of the Revelation, he being 25, and she was 40. She was a rich widow and ran a large trade of her own. It was she who offered herself in marriage to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who was associated with her in trading ventures. From the time of her marriage with the Holy Prophet till her death, over a period of twenty years, she gave her husband ease of circumstances, and deep love and devotion.
Rasul Allah(PBUH) said: “She believed in me when none else did. She embraced Islam when people disbelieved me. And she helped and comforted me when there was none else to lend me a helping hand.”
“Never was I jealous of any of the Prophet’s wives”, said Sayyidah Ayesha (RA) “but Khadija, although I never saw her. Her sweet memory never blurred in the Prophet’s heart.
Once I hurt his feelings on this issue and he replied gravely,
‘Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala has blessed me with her love.’
Sayyiduna Khadija (RA) bore the Beloved (PBUH) six children, the first born was named Sayyiduna Qasim (RA), after whom, according to Arab custom, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) received the Kunya “Abul Qasim” or “the father of Qasim”, then were born Sayyiduna Abdullah (RA). All of them passed away in their infancy. Amongst the daughters Sayyidah Ruqayya (RA) was the eldest, then came Sayyidah Zaynab(RA), Sayyidah Umm Kulthoom (RA) and the last and best known of them was Sayyidah Fatima (RA).
In the absence of this Bibi’s sacrifices, Islam would not have achieved its fanfare. Hazrat Khadija was born in Makkahh. She was the daughter of Khuwayled bin Asad bin Abdul Uzza bin Qusayy. Qusayy was the common progenitor of her line as well as the line of Muhemmed Mustafa (PBUH) of the clan of Bani Hashim, and the future Prophet of Islam. She thus belonged to a collateral branch of the Bani Hashim. Next to Bani Hashim itself, her family was the noblest and the most honorable in all Arabia. Her family was distinguished not only by its opulence but also by the content of its character. Khadija’s mother had died in or around AD. 575; and Khuwayled, her father, died in or around A.D. 585. Upon his death, his children inherited his fortune, and divided it among themselves. Wealth has its own perils. It can tempt one to live a life of idleness and luxury.
There are four women who enjoy supremacy over other women and one of the great personalities out of them is Hazrat Khadija tul Kubra (S.A.) on whose honour and supremacy an Ayah of Holy Quran stand witness that says: Rasool, We found you poor, then we made you wealthy. Khadija tul Kubra (R A) was great Mohsina-e-Islam on which Quran also stands witness.
This great woman has the honour of being the first Musaddiqa-e-Paighambar (PBUH), her wealth and sacrifices of her offspring helped Islam to a great extent as she utilised all her wealth all around to dissemination of Islam.
He said Hazrat Khadijas (R.A.) home had become a shelter not only for Rasool (PBUH) but for all Muslims. Hazrat Khadija tul Kubra (RA) had been the protector and defender of Paigham-e-Risalat in the initial and most difficult era of Islam. The Seerat-e-Khadija (RA) is the beacon of light for women at large in every era.
Before Islam, Khadija was the Princess of Makkah. When the sun of Islam rose above the horizon, Allah was pleased to make her the Princess of Islam also. Allah was also pleased to make her the Mother of the Believers, as He says in His Book: The support that Khadija gave to the Muslim community in Makkah, was indispensable for the survival of Islam. Her support to the Muslim community guaranteed its survival when it was in a state of blockade. In this sense, she was a maker of history -the history of Islam.

 

The Forgotten Holocaust of Jammu


بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم

اَللّٰھُمَّ صَلِّ عَلٰی مُحَمَّدٍ وَّعَلٰٓی اٰلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

By Syeda Qudsiya Mashhadi

Jammu 1

India has always covertly conspired and sometimes overtly orchestrated pogroms in the Muslim majority regions of India, but not many people, not even in Pakistan, know that on 6th of November 1947, the Mahraja Hari Singh’s army, Sikh militants and Hindu terrorist organization RSS had killed nearly 500,000 Muslims in Jammu and forced more than one million to migrate to Pakistan. India has always cried wolf and accused Pakistan for intervention in Kashmir through tribal militants in 1947 in a bid to cover Indian aggression and interference in Jammu and Kashmir. But the anti-Muslim violence that occurred in Jammu and Kashmir on this horrific day was nothing short of an ‘ethnic cleansing’ of Jammu’s Muslims.

India takes an unflinching and aggressive stance regarding Kashmir in international community and never fails to project Pakistan as a rogue nation which exports terrorism in the region. Reality is far from this propaganda by India. One only has to look at historical facts of pre-partition of Indo-Pak subcontinent and what transpired after the partition to realize how Indian state has been actively propagating its rule through terrorism and ruthless culture of rape and massacre. Millions of Muslims in Hyderabad, Gujarat and Kashmir have been killed, tortured and raped to date and India’s treatment of minorities is increasingly becoming an alarming issue for the international community. In September and October 1948, soon after independence from the British Empire, around 40,000 people were brutally slaughtered in Hyderabad, Central India. Huge as this number is, it is nothing compared to the heinous massacre systematically carried out at the hands of extremist Hindus on 6th November 1947, during the great Jammu killings. It is one of the least known genocides in modern history.

One million Kashmiri Muslim refugees were uprooted and an estimated 2,500,00 – 300,000 were massacred in the Jammu region alone in August-October 1947. Due to Indian state’s connivance, it is difficult to find records of this genocide, except in the memories of the survivors, and the tales of horror they passed on to their next generations. Around 500,000 Muslims were killed with military precision. The targeted killing had already started in Jammu around mid-July 1947, and the operation got a boost immediately after a fleeing Maharaja Hari Singh reached Jammu on 26 October 1947. An organized carnage was orchestrated to kill Muslims, wherever found or spotted in Jammu.

The Dogra state troops were at the forefront of attacks on Muslims. The Indian state authorities were also reported to be issuing weapons not only to local volunteer organizations such as RSS, but to those in surrounding East Punjab districts such as Gurdaspur. British daily ‘The London Times’ quoting its special correspondent in India, stated that the Maharaja, under his own supervision, assassinated 2,37,000 Muslims using military forces in the Jammu area. The editor of ‘Statesman’, Ian Stephen, in his book ‘Horned Moon’ writes that till the end of Autumn 1947, more than 200,000 Muslims were murdered in one go. Horace Alexander wrote in the ‘Spectator’ (16 January 1948) that the killings had “the tacit consent of State authority” and put the figure at 2,00,000.

All this butchery was designed to change the demographics of Jammu valley. Both documentary and oral sources suggest that this bloodbath was nothing less than an organized holocaust of Muslims. The worst carnage took place on 6 November when Muslims in mohalla Talab Khatikan were asked to surrender, which they did. They were shifted to the police lines at Jogi Gate and encouraged to go to Pakistan. The first batch of several thousand was loaded in about sixty lorries escorted by troops. When the convoy came close to Chattha on the Jammu-Sialkot road, waiting RSS men and Sikhs attacked it. People were pulled out of the vehicles and killed mercilessly. Women were abducted and raped. Some managed to escape to reach Sialkot.

This holocaust was not possible without the collaboration of the Indian state. Today, on 6th November, we remember those souls who suffered at the hands of Indian imperialism and Hindu extremists. We pay tribute to the brave sons and daughters of Jammu and Kashmir and promise them that their blood will not go to waste. We vow that we will not rest till the oppressed Muslims of Jammu and Kashmir breathe the air of freedom, inshaAllah. That’s a promise.

Tale of Two Holy Cities


بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم

اَللّٰھُمَّ صَلِّ عَلٰی مُحَمَّدٍ وَّعَلٰٓی اٰلِ مُحَمَّدٍ
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By Syeda Qudsiya Mashhadi

For the first time, my pen is shy of words; how to express in words the special journey to the two of the holiest cities for Muslims, Madina Munawarah and Makkah Mukaramah? Can words do justice to the feelings, observations, thoughts, ambience of such sacred places as these? Hard feat indeed, but I will try my best. In this effort if I transgress somewhere, I seek pardon of my Creator and my Spiritual Guide, beloved Prophet [PBUH] and all the Muslims who read it. My intention is to objectively present everything as it happened and not gloss over some undesirable things that were observed during the course of the journey. Secondly, I want this account to be a helpful guide for the ones intending to make this journey to sacred lands.

This was not the first time I went to Haramain Kareemain but the fact that this second visit was after a gap of 11 years, had made every feeling new. There is not a Muslim in the world who does not have this pronounced desire of visiting these extraordinary cities and it would be true to say that this holy journey is an unlimited blessing of Allah upon Muslims. Sadly, not everyone is able to reap the benefits of these boundless blessings, but will come to that later.

When finally you go to Baitullah after coming to Makkah, the sight of it gives such pleasure that you forget all your woes or how physically tired you are. But this pleasure is not without a sense of majesty and grandeur of the House of the Lord of the Worlds. One can sense the all-engulfing might of Allah in Baitullah and the over-powering realization that one is just His humble servant and is present in His court to say Labbaik to His every order and wish. One truly understands the meaning of ‘Labbaik Allahuma Labbaik’ when one is sweating out there in 52 degrees C temperature and doing ‘Tawaf’ in an over-crowded place just for the sake of Allah. This is the journey of your mind, body and soul. Every iota of your being is on a holy pilgrimage. This is a labour of love for one’s Creator and this arduous task can be the most pleasurable thing for the ones who feel their connection with the Creator.

This connection is only felt by the ones, who are able to close their eyes to the world they have left behind, and close their eyes to the world which is around them even at that moment. In fact, the onslaught of huge crowds of vibrant humanity is not greater anywhere else than in Kaaba. One is overwhelmed with it all; so many faces, so many people from different nationalities and races; but you go there to renew your connection with Allah. One miracle that everyone witnesses in Khana Kaaba, and even in Masjid-e-Nabwi, is the constant provision of Zam Zam. Hundreds of years have passed since Bibi Hajra [AS] made that ‘Saee’ for her son Ismaeel [AS] and even now, the spring that sprung up for that blessed family, has not stopped. Cool and refreshing Zam Zam is available to Hajis in Baitullah and in Haram-e-Nabwi as well. After a Tawaf in scorching Sun, a glass of Zam Zam not only quenches the thirst but also seems to magically erase the effects of excessive heat as well. Credit must be given here to the Saudi govt. for constant availability of cooled Zam Zam water to the hajis in Haramain Shareefain. Not to mention the cleanliness, that is maintained actively around the clock at a place which is heavily crowded day and night.

Masjid e Nabwi

Then the traveller of this sacred journey reaches the city of the beloved Prophet [PBUH], Madina Munawarah. The ‘air’, the ambience of this city holy is different from Makkah Shareef. There is a feeling of awe in the air when one is in Makkah but in Madina that feeling is replaced with love. The sight of the Green Dome brings uncontrollable tears to the eyes of the ones who have not seen the beautiful visage of the Holiest of Prophets, Muhemmed [PBUH] and associate Gunbad-e-Khizra with him. Even those who consider themselves ‘weak’ Muslims, feel the utmost love and reverence for the Messenger [PBUH] of Allah and Masjid-e-Nabwi entices them. The exact resting place under the Green Dome is not easily accessible as it is heavily crowded all the time. Women especially have limited time to pay their respects to the Prophet [PBUH] as they are only allowed to go near the resting place of Prophet [PBUH] after 10 pm at night.

Muslims also say Salam to the two Khulafa-e-Rashideen, Hazrat Abu Bakr [RA] and Hazrat Umar [RA] buried beside the Holy Prophet [PBUH]. Adjacent to the gate of Masjid-e-Nabwi which faces the Green Dome, lies the most sacred graveyard, Jannat-ul-Baqee. Here rests the blessed daughter of the Prophet [PBUH], Bibi Fatima Zahra [SA]. It is also the resting place of some members of Ahlulbayt [AS] and Sahaba [RA] of the Prophet [PBUH]. Women are not allowed to enter but they also recite Fatiha and Quran near the boundary wall of Al-Baqee. In the times of Ottomans, no building taller than the Green Dome was built near Masjid-e-Nabwi out of respect for it. Now a days, one sees a lot of sky-scrapping five star hotels surrounding Masjid-e-Nabwi from all sides. But the Clock Tower in Makkah facing Khana Kaaba takes the cake for tall buildings. Personally, I don’t like a titanic sky scrapper towering above Khana Kaaba. It reminds me of the hadees of RasullAllah [PBUH] where he mentions the advent of tall buildings in the End of Times. It seems highly disrespectful to me, but people may differ from me on this point.

The place near the resting place of Prophet [PBUH] is called ‘Riyaz-ul-Jannah’ [a garden of paradise] and it is recommended to offer two rakkats there. But one should be careful not to push others or block the way for other pilgrims and only do so without being irksome. It is a great feeling to know that the Prophet [PBUH] used to offer prayers there, lived there and walked those blessed streets of Madina Munawarah. The close proximity of his physical body is a great gift for the pilgrims who come to Madina especially for saying Salam to their Prophet [PBUH]. The Hazari in Madina Shareef is not a part of Umrah or Hajj but who in their right mind would come to the House of Allah and then not go to the House of Prophet [PBUH] near it? The worshippers find solace in Baitullah and the lovers find peace in Masjid-e-Nabwi. Two wonderful Holy Cities, indeed.

This journey is made in this world and not in heaven; that is why one is tested by some troubles as well. After all, this is what life is about. Therefore, mentioning a few things I observed during my trip in the hope that the concerned people will try to become better. Without going into details, the passengers, especially Pakistanis, were made to wait for long, indefinite periods of time without any indication of their time of exit from the Jeddah Airport. People who had Saudi ‘Iqamahs’ were given swift exit, while the pilgrims, ‘the guests of Allah’ were made to wait. Despite being a huge international airport, it was ill-managed, especially washrooms, and also there was no one on the counters to guide the passengers arriving on the airport.

The main thing I learned from Umrah trip and which I also want to suggest to others is to never go to Umrah through an Umrah Agent. Most of the things they tell you about the arrangements of your trip are lies. From our tickets to the date of flying, to the hotel that he booked, our Umrah Agent lied about everything. J Then there is a ‘Mandoob’ assigned to you through the Umrah Agents and you become dependent on the Mandoob Sahib the moment you set foot in Saudia. The Mandoob guides you to your hotel and also manages your transport from Makkah to Madina and back. The attitude and lies of the Mandoob are also deplorable but let’s not talk about that.

One thing which I definitely want to talk about is the importance of lowering the gaze for men in Islam and how it was emphasized by our Holy Prophet [PBUH]. People spent a lot of money to make this holy pilgrimage but fail to follow this simple instruction in the Haramain. Look in your heart and find Allah; not the time or place to sit and stare at women pilgrims. Just like each good deed in Baitullah is rewarded manifold, similarly, every sin committed there is colossal in nature. Women being naturally modest try their best to avoid coming in contact with men while doing ‘Tawaf’. Most of the men are careless during Tawaf of Kaaba and roughly graze women in their unheeded stride. They should be as careful in avoiding contact with women as women are in avoiding contact with men. In this way, this holy duty can become easier for women folk.

Another amazing thing I observed during my Umrah, right from the beginning when I was boarding the plane, that majority of the people going for Umrah belonged to the lowest class of our society! The elite were rarely to be seen. Somehow these poorest of people had gathered enough money for pilgrimage due to their passion and will and this was really commendable. I also observed that almost half of the passengers were extremely old people. This was a painful fact, to be true. Somehow this has been ingrained in our collective psyche as a nation that one should only go to Umrah when one’s life is spent and one is retired, old and haggard. This is something that should be changed because the argument that these people are gathering funds all their lives for pilgrimage is rebutted by the fact that every year lot of poor people also go for Umrah! It is about the will and desire to go there and only then Allah makes it easy to make this sacred journey.

It is difficult to cover all the aspects of Umrah and things related to the two holy cities in one article. The essence of this journey to the two holy cities is love and ‘adab’ of Allah [swt] and Rasul Allah [PBUH]. The important thing is to have firm faith and belief that Allah will make it easy to travel to Harmain. I do hope and pray that all Muslims get this blessed opportunity and are also able to make themselves worthy of it. Aameen.

Jihad fi sabilillah, Quaid-e-Azam and our present leaders


By Suleman Hassan

Quaid edited pic

Our beloved Quaid-e-Azam

There is a controversial statement attributed to Quaid-e-Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah that “Pakistan was established with the first Muslim stepping on the coastal lands of Sind.” The controversy in this statement is due to the disputed claims of whether or not it was ever articulated by the Founding Father of the Pakistan. Without going into the details of the controversy, the statement indeed is reflective of the ideology of Pakistan. In this article, we are discussing the vision of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah with regard to one of the most prominent aspect of Islamic Ideology, i.e. Jihad fi Sabeel Allah. It will also help ease our over-ambitious secularists who spend their time and wealth to symbolize Quaid-e-Azam as someone who stood for an independent homeland for Muslims of sub-continent (as this can’t be denied), in order to live in the similar manner as they used to live in the pre-partition India under the British Raj by following a refined version of Anglo-Saxon constitution enabling Western Democracy. Similarly, the so-called Rightists who are despicable towards the idea of Pakistan since its inception and strongly believe that the person we know as Quaid-e-Azam was actually a Kaafir, would hopefully realize it one more time that the way they are tuned to look at this world needs to be refined, to be on the right side of history, or remain on the losing side, as always.

After the conclusion of World War 1, when the whole West conspired to establish the illegitimate state of Israel on the soil of Palestine which used to be under Islamic rule for centuries, the only notable Muslim voice that opposed the British led Western alliance raised from British India. Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam led the Muslims of India to one of the most distinguished effort against the creation of Israel [1]. This incontestable fact illustrates the vision, these two most prominent personalities had, i.e., the Ummah beyond the concept of modern Nation State and the singularity of Muslims as global entity.

Jinnah with grand mufti of Palestine

Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah with Grand Mufti of Palestine in Cairo – 1946

It was this very vision which was at work during Indonesia’s war of independence in early 1940s too. Indonesia, the most populated Muslim nation, formally known as Republic of Indonesia announced its independence on 17th August 1945, just few days after the surrender of Japan in World War 2 in the wake of horrendous nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The newly born Republic instantly confronted military threats to its very existence from British troops that arrived on its soil as a contingent of the Allied Forces to disarm the Japanese. Dutch troops also seized this opportunity to regain control of the former East Indies. The British troops that were officially assigned to the task of repatriating Allied prisoners of war, assisted the Dutch troops indirectly in their neo-colonial agenda.

first Indonesian flag is raised in 1945

Bendera Pusaka Sang Saka Merah Putih(The Sacred Red and White Heirloom Flag), the first Indonesian flag, is raised on 17 August 1945.

The war between Indonesian and British troops started in November 1945 and in the heat of fighting, British Commander felt the need of reinforcement from regional base. At that historical juncture, Indian Subcontinent was still part of British monarchy while final negotiations were underway for Indian freedom. Being most significant and closest British colony from Indonesia, the Indian army was used by British command as reinforcement for Indonesia. However, in India, emotions were high, political settlement for the Indo-Pak freedom was in the final stage, leaders from Indian National Congress and All India Muslim League were striving their best to gain as much geographical ground as they could. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah could have tolerated the move of British Raj to send Army personnel as reinforcement in Indonesia, after all he was more than 65 years of age with terminal tuberculosis, had passed an extraordinary time of decades old struggle for the rights and freedom of Muslims of India and was very close to achieving his objective of gaining independence of the first ever ideological state for the Muslims after the creation of State of Madina-e-Munawarra 1300 years ago by Sayyedi RasoolAllah (S.A.W). But he preferred otherwise; instead of only focusing on his mission, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammed All Jinnah raised his thundering voice of protest against the colonial atrocities in Indonesia and gave a clarion call for support to the Indonesian struggle for independence.

It is not clear as to how many armed personnel joined British contingent in Indonesia from British India and also, what the ethnic and religious divide of the reinforcement was. But it is very apparent that from among them, a group of 600 Muslim soldiers of British Indian Army played a very crucial role, they rebelled from the British command and joined the armed struggle against colonial designs of European powers. They fought shoulder to shoulder with their Indonesian brothers in faith and almost 500 out of 600 Mujahideen achieved martyrdom [2]. The question here is who motivated these British soldiers to turn into Mujahideens and encouraged them to die with dignity in the way of Allah instead of committing the grave sin of oppressing fellow Muslims as part of the colonial army?

The answer to the above question might come as surprise to our fellow seculars and to the section of clergy which never acknowledged the sincerity behind the life long struggle of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah. On 17th August 1995, the Government of Indonesia awarded the highest honor Adipura to the Founding Father of Pakistan, Mohammad All Jinnah and the Government of Pakistan [3] for inspiring the Muslim soldiers of the British Indian Army to support the freedom struggle of the fellow Indonesian Muslims against their own command. On the other hand Indonesia’s support towards Pakistan in the 1965 war against India never forgotten by Pakistan. Until now, Indonesia’s support still considered one of the most valuable contributions and noted in the history of Pakistan. This historical journey has helped to shape an emotional relationship between the two countries, which can be enhanced into a more substantial relationship.

The interesting fact is that Pakistan was not even an entity on the map when these brave 600 Muslim Mujahideen showed their loyalty to their Creator; then why were these soldiers considered Pakistanis and why was the Government of Pakistan awarded the highest honour of Indonesia along with Quaid-e-Azam? This fact would resolve another point which is fundamental to the foundation of Pakistan and as highlighted earlier at the start of this article, i.e., the basis for Quaid’s resolve to struggle for an independent homeland of Muslims in South Asia. For Quaid-e-Azam, Pakistan existed even before 14th August 1947. He acted and lived his tenure as a true pluralistic leader of the Muslims of South Asia without any discrimination of ethnicity, sect, tribe and locality. The Muslim soldiers of British Army considered Quaid as their Supreme Commander and complied with his wishes and desires by treating them as orders. The day of 14th August 1947 was just a formal initiation of a romantic journey of the Islamic spirit, which we call Pakistan.

The most profound point declared from this above historical fact is the understanding of the concept of Jihad by Quaid-e-Azam and the tactical measures he directed to perform this role. In essence, he utilized a group of Mujahideen, capable of performing the obligation of armed struggle to support the oppressed fellow Muslims. This answers another current issue about the use of Mujahideen groups in areas where Muslims are fighting the freedom struggles.

Pakistan has been the fore-runner in reviving the spirit of Jihad globally since its formal establishment in August 1947 as per the vision of Quaid-e-Azam. Be it Arab-Israel wars, Russian-Chechen war, Bosnia-Serbia conflict, Afghan Jihad or the Kashmir cause.

Pakistan has tried to execute its role in helping the oppressed Muslims where ever it could, with its limited resources and frail leadership, it has always unfortunately had. The present ruling elite, the opposition and those aspiring to take the leadership of Pakistan in the name of justice, change and religion are now openly calling it a historical mistake of the country to govern the obligation of Jihad [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. No one can deny that some serious miscalculations and errors occurred in running this obligation of Jihad by those who were in authority at those respective times. The effects of these mistakes are evident till date on our socio-political fabric. But instead of rectifying those mistakes and prioritizing Jihad-fi-Sabeel-Allah as the main driver of Pakistan’s foreign policy, our elites from all walks of life, specially politicians and bureaucrats are openly advocating to disband Jihad to support oppressed Muslims on national and international media.

We warn these rulers, leaders and people of authority not to betray the sacrifices of Ummat of Sayyedi Rasool Allah (S.A.W) and the struggles of Quaid-e-Azam. The time is not far when the traitors of the precious Muslim blood would be held accountable. On the Day of Judgment, Allah will not forgive those who call for the cease of Jihad and they will be in the deepest shame in front of the Pakistani martyrs in Indonesia, Kashmir, Afghanistan, Chechnya, Bosnia and in other parts of the world.

References:

[1] – http://www.allamaiqbal.com/publications/journals/review/oct91/5.htm > Iqbal and Jinnah on Palestine by Dr. Ghulam Ali Chaudhry from Iqbal Academy

[2], [3] – http://www.kemlu.go.id/karachi/Pages/AboutUs.aspx?IDP=1&l=en > A brief available on the website of Consulate General of the Republic of Indonesia in Karachi about the historical relationship between the two brotherly countries.

[4] – http://www.arabnews.com/node/217636 > Musharraf banned organizations for Jihad in Kashmir

[5] – http://tribune.com.pk/story/231877/nawaz-sharif-gets-it-right-on-india/ > Nawaz Sharif speaking at SAFMA conference in support of friendship with India by declaring that we have same culture and eating habits and heavily criticised the Afghan policy of strategic depth as obsession.

[6] – http://www.thefridaytimes.com/beta3/tft/article.php?issue=20121012&page=4.1 > Harkatul Mujahideen’s statement on Zardari’s Kashmir policy: “Musharraf betrayed the Kashmiris,” he said, adding that “President Asif Zardari’s policies had been even worse for jihad in Kashmir. He played Holi with the blood of the Kashmiris by granting India the Most Favored Nation status and forging trade ties with our eternal enemy,” Fazlur Rahman Khalil of Harkatul Mujahideen.

[7] – http://www.zemtv.com/2012/12/08/imran-khan-full-interview-and-qa-in-india-agenda-aaj-tak-dec-7-2012/ > A full Imran Khan interview in Indian channel Agenda Aaj Tak

[8] – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=St97E6XIwAE > Imran Khan’s proposed solution on Kashmir

The truth about 1971 massacres – Documents from the U.S. National Archives


Even after forty years, Bengalis in Muslim Bengal are going through the continuation of same civil war that the rest of country went through.

Even after four decades, the Awami League is still conducting programs against pro-Pakistan masses. Today all of Bangladesh is holding a country-wide “hartal” to protest the prosecution of those who the Awami League thinks supported Pakistan or still support Pakistan.

Mukti Bahini in Dhaka Stadium

Mukti Bahini in Dhaka Stadium

Indian Support of Mukti Bahini Guerrillas (Documents from the U.S. National Archives)

  • Initially, the Indians are likely to confine their actions to expressions of sympathy for and perhaps support to East Bengalis. They will watch closely for signs as to the strength and prospects for success on the part of East Bengal dissidents. If the evidence indicates to the Indians that the East Bengal independence movement has reasonably good prospects for success, the GOI may do any of several things: tolerate privately provided cross-border assistance to the East Bengalis. This assistance could range from propaganda support to weapons and explosives; permit East Bengal dissidents to use India as a refuge and to conduct cross-border activities from within India; covertly provide supplies, including weapons, and perhaps some training, to East Bengal dissidents. Indian Reaction to Pakistan Events, Mar. 29, 1971
  • Shahi displayed concern over evolution of events in East Pakistan and thought competing communist elements from India could set off armed struggle between left and right forces in East Bengal which could overshadow current hostilities between separatists and army. Pakistan PERMREP Protests Indian Interference, Apr. 9, 1971
  • Pakistan High Commissioner told Ambassador today that Pakistan and India on verge of war. … He claimed 3,000 Indians armed with regulation Indian Army equipment either killed or captured by Pakistani troops in East Pakistan. Conversation with Pakistan High Commissioner, April 30, 1971
  • In addition to its concern about the refugee problem, the GOI has been taking steps to support the Bengali struggle for independence in the face of the military successes of the Pakistan Army. The BSF has established camps at which 10,000 Bengalis are reportedly receiving training in guerrilla and sabotage tactics. Limited quantities of arms and ammunition continue to be provided to the Bengali separatists and some Indian forces have infiltrated into East Bengal to provide assistance and training to the separatists. … [W]e have learned from intelligence sources that China may have given a conditional promise to assist Pakistan in the event hostilities break out with India. The Chinese may have also given assurances that they will initiate military action “along the Tibetan border” if Indian troops deliberately cross the Pakistani border in force. Should the Chinese become directly involved,it is likely that the Soviet Union will openly support India and will presumably provide such military assistance as required. Contingency Study for Indo-Pakistan Hostilities, May 25, 1971
  • For some time now India has been systematically interfering in internal affairs of Pakistan with clear aim of jeopardizing Pakistan’s territorial integrity. India has sent armed infiltrators into East Pakistan to create disturbances and to help anti-state elements. She has circulated false and highly distorted and tendentious accounts of events in East Pakistan through government-controlled radio and press. She has not only provided shelter to anti-state elements on her soil but has also persistently allowed so-called members of “Bangla Desh Government” to use her radio and other mass media to stir up rebellion against legitimate government of country. Pakistan Protest Note to India, May 26, 1971
  • We have pursued three courses with regard to the Indians. First, since the refugee burden seems to be India’s major problem now, we have taken a number of steps to encourage India to manage this problem by getting international assistance rather than by taking direct action against East Pakistan as some Indians are urging. Partly because of our actions U Thant is getting an effective international assistance program underway. We are already helping and will be stepping up our assistance. Second, we have taken up with the Indians their cross-border support to guerrillas and have privately cautioned them against direct action. Third, in order to persuade the Indians that a solution to the East Pakistan problem can be achieved without their direct military intervention, we have confidentially briefed them on the positions we are taking privately with Pakistan. Possible India-Pakistan War, May 26, 1971
  • Following based on Corr’s personal observations and discussions with M.A.K. Chaudhry, Inspector General Police (IGP), East Pakistan, formerly IGP North West Frontier Province (NWFP). Joint Embassy-USAID Message, June 25, 1971
  • Choudhury admitted that attacks by Mukti Bahini forces against police stations in rural areas seemed to be continuing at a high level but asserted that at least now police were fighting back rather than dropping their rifles and running. … Referring to Dacca, he said bombings and sabotage were a major headache for his forces. Recalling press item three days ago announcing capture of young Bengali carrying explosives, IG said man was part of three man team designated to disrupt SSC (matriculation) examinations. He said young man was found with impressive supply of grenades adn other explosive devices, all with Indian markings. Man admitted to membership BM and to having been trained at Argatala before undertaking mission. Status of East Pak Police, July 23, 1971
  • Two successive batches of insurgents have now completed training in India and have boosted number and quality of infiltrators. Number of Mukti Bahini have received training at Dehra Dun and been commissioned as officers. Additional numbers are now in training at various Indian centers. Meanwhile extremist elements including Naxalites have taken advantage of opportunity to step up their own activity, on the other hand, Hamid said, Mukti Bahini are not so successful as they would like to have people believe. Conversation with Pak Army Chief of Staff: East Pak Situation, Aug. 11, 1971
  • Acting Secretary Johnson called in Indian Ambassador Jha August 23 to discuss USG concerns about reports of GOI intention to step up its support to Mukti Bahini and to express USG hope that GOI could use its influence with Mukti Bahini to discourage and prevent attacks on relief facilities and personnel in East Pakistan. Jha in response indicated historical tradition of anarchic violence in Bengal and physical and poltiical difficulties which GOI would face if it tried disarm guerrillas. Jha stressed dangers of radicalization of Mukti Bahini. Indian Support to Mukti Bahini, Aug. 12, 1971
  • During Hilaly’s call on Cisco August 13, Hilaly raised question of role Senator Church and his office playing on behalf of Bangla Desh Movement. Hilaly’s Call on Sisco, Aug. 14, 1971
  • Primary problem is not cross-border activity by Paks but rather by Indians, including vital support they are giving to Mukti Bahini. We believe problem of potential serious cross-border action by Paks would be easily eliminated if India halted its own support for military operation within East Pakistan. Indo-Pak Escalation, August 20, 1971
  • Three months ago East Bengali leftist parties sought the formation of a United Front Government. They were then rebuffed by the Awami League, which asserted that its sweeping victory in East Bengal in the December 1970 general elections conferred on it a mandate as exclusive representative of the people of East Bengal. The creation of the council is thus a major shift in the Awami League’s stance. Some sources believe that the council was formed as a result of pressure from leftists within the Mukhti Bahini; since the “liberation force” appears to have drawn heavily on students, it is very likely that it has a higher than average complement of leftists. Moreover, the Mukhti Bahini runs the day-to-day risks in the struggle against the Pakistan Government and now has more immediate contact with the people of East Bengal than the BDG, whose members are in India. Thus, the Mukhti Bahini might have been able to convince the Awami League of the need to broaden the BDG’s base. Bangla Desh: A “National Liberation Front” Emerging? Sept. 21, 1971

The National Archives support what Sarmila Bose and the Hamood Ur Rehman Commission have written:

  • Serious concern over Indian military deployments, strengths, and intentions was expressed during Sep 30 briefing of Congressman Frelinghuysen by Major General Jilani, Director General, Inter Services Intelligence, and his staff. … They also portrayed 69 Indian-sponsored insurgent training camps bordering East Pakistan, with an estimated total of 30 – 50 thousand rebels in training. Pak Military Intelligence Briefing for Congressman Frelinghuysen, Oct. 1, 1971
  • Although India had not started the crisis, it was, for reasons of its own, supporting guerrilla activity in East Pakistan, even though this was denied. Memorandum of Conversation with Foreign Secretary Douglas-Home (Great Britain), Oct. 3, 1971
  • Sir Terence asked about US representations to India on latter’s aid to Mukti Bahini. I replied that GOI position is that it gives sympathy and support, as demanded by Pariament, to members of Mukti Bahini who enter India and then go back with or without arms. GOI makes clear it will not stop this support. However, GOI will not admit that it is supporting training camps for Mukti Bahini on Indian soil, despite ample evidence to contrary. I expressed doubt regular Indian Army units or personnel are participating in military activity in EAst Pakistan, though some Indian Bengalis might be involved. Sir Terence noted incidence of shooting, including artillery, across the border. I speculated that if Paks retaliate it will probably be in Kashmir in order to seize territory for bargaining purposes. War or Peace in South Asia, October 7, 1971
  • We now have specific report (Calcutta 2605 – protect source) to effect that Mukti Bahini plans to inject as many as 40,000 armed men across border by October 15, with additional 20,000 to follow by end October. This action reportedly would be accomplished with support diversionary actions by Indian Army to keep Pak Armed Forces off balance while infiltration took place. We are not convinced that intensified guerrilla activity will achieve results compatible with India’s interests. Risks of War in Indo-Pak Confrontation, Oct. 7, 1971
  • Oct 8 press reported 79 Indian agents eliminated the previous day in two separate actions in Rangpur District. First action in which 44 were claimed killed occurred mile and a half outside Pakistan territory near Daikhata. In second action, north of Lalmanirhat, 35 infiltrators were reportedly killed. In both cases, large quantities of ammunition, including machine guns, grenades and explosives claimed captured. Comment: Press reports of Indian agents and/or infiltrators killed this week now totals 136. More Indian Agents, Oct. 8, 1971
  • Status of insurgency: In Dacca 2733 we suggested two chief unknowns this situation were: (1) whether population of province had will continue support [sic] MB in face of difficulties and reprisals and (2) whether MB would be able organize itself for long guerrilla struggle. In past two months we have gathered some evidence on both points: (A) On question of popular support our impression is that urban bourgeoisie showing some signs weariness. People in this class hate West Pakistan as much as in April and May but some beginning wish things would settle down. However, peasants who must actually feed and shelter guerrillas appear be on side of MB as much as ever. This true despite fact that there are now more guerrillas than in July, placing correspondingly heavier burden on rural people. Army’s reprisals against villagers for MB actions appear counterproductive in sense of increasing their hatred of the army and support of MB. In sum, MB’s popular support appears to be holding up. (B) Question of organization somewhat more obscure. As reported in Dacca 4066, MB in Gopalganj claims existence permanent chain of command from Colonel Usmani down to Thana-level guerrillas. MB sources informed Australian Deputy High Commissioner (protect) that MB has about 28,000 EBRS, EPRS, police, locally-recruited militia (Ansars) and veterans; 40,000 men in camps being trained for conventional war; and 35,000 men who have completed guerrilla training and are already active; latter reportedly supposedly scattered among 69 base camps and 100 sub-bases throughout province. According this source, MB intends establish 90 base camps eventually. Best judgment we can make at this point is that while MB has not yet developed its organization to degree necessary to overcome Pak Army, it has made considerable progress. First evidence of parallel BD shadow government appeared during month: as reported Dacca 4066, Time Correspondent Dan Coggin met individuals in Gopalganj Subdivision claiming to be governing area in name Bangla Desh Government. Pakistan Internal Situation, Oct. 9, 1971
  • Former East Pakistan Governor Abdul Monem Khan shot to death night October 13 at his home in Dacca. As Monem Khan had been conferring with conservative politicians for past several months with view toward ending his retirement, strong likelihood is that assassination carried out by Mukti Bahini. Assassination of Monem Khan, Oct. 14, 1971
  • The Pakistan Army in East Pakistan has achieved nearly autonomous control of the province, in many respects independent of the policies and direction of President Yahya Khan in Islamabad. Only foreign affairs affecting East Pakistan is firmly in the hands of Islamabad. The relative isolation of President Yahya Khan is probably the result of many factors. Indications of this isolation are that Army commandersi in the East pursue independent military operations, the Army governs the province behind the facade of the puppet civilian Governor Malik and his cabinet — who are completely dependent on the Army for their personal security — with limited reference to Islamabad, little but Pakistani successes and India’s perfidy is reported from Dacca to Islamabad, and President Yahya Khan lacks independent means of observation, reporting and verification of events in the East. … The myth of growing political stability in East Pakistan is almost certainly fed to Yahya Khan by reports from his civilian Governor and his Army commanders. The reality is that Army policies and operations — behind the facade of a civilian government — are progressively and seriously alienating the Bengali population in East Pakistan, and that the seeds of rebellion are not only those sown by India. President Yahya Khan’s Control in East Pakistan is Increasingly Limited, Nov. 5, 1971
  • General Farman Ali Khan described the loevel of Mukti guerrilla insurgency as somewhat intensifed but manageable because the newly trained Bengali guerrillas entering from India feared to take action. Over 1,400 guerrillas had entered Dacca district in the last 30 days but only a few had chosen to fight. He acknowledged, off-the-record, that this was due to the terroristic reprisal policy. He also acknowledged that terror and reprisal had an “unfortunate effect on Bengali attitudes.” But he said, “all Army commanders had concluded that insurgency was more of a problem in areas where the Army had been too lenient and had not demonstrated clean-up operations.” … General Farman Ali Khan said the Army sought to leave the fighting of the Mukti guerrillas to the newly armed Bengali “Rasikars,” who now numbered 60,000. He acknowledged that “Rasikars” — raised as village levies for guard duty with only ten days training, and without NCOs or officers — did not constitute a disciplined force. However, the “Rasikars” are a destabilizing element — living off the land, able to make life and death decisions by denouncing collaborators and openly pillaging and terrorizing villages without apparent restraint from the Army. With villagers caught between the Rasikars and Mukti guerrillas, law and order is breaking down rapidly in rural East Pakistan. Hence, the rural population is moving either to the cities which are now overpopulated or going to India. … General Farman Ali Khan accepted the estimate that at least 80 percent of the Hindus had left East Pakistan. He, off-the-record, spoke of about six million refugees who had gone to India and he anticipated that a further 1,500,000 refugees would probably go to India “before the situation settles down.” President Yahya Khan’s Control in East Pakistan is Increasingly Limited, Nov. 5, 1971
  • [I]nitially, insurgence was weak. Indians needed several months to train Mukhti Bahini. Mukhti Bahini have conducted border crossings, and we are satisfied there is active Indian involvement in Pakistan fighting. This is mixed operations, with about four times more Indians than Mukhti Bahini. Indians have publicly acknowledged their direct involvement during last 48 hours. Minister of Defense has said Indian troops are permitted to cross border and go far enough into East Pakistan to quell artillery. India-Pakistan Briefing for Yugoslav, Nov. 30, 1971
  • Prime minister Indira Gandhi announced to packed Lok Sabha … that one hour earlier General Niazi, Pak commander in East Bengal, had surrendered unconditionally in Dacca to General Arora, Indian General commanding joint Indian Army / Mukti Bahini operations. Telegram from New Delhi Embassy to Secretary of State, Dec. 16, 1971

  • Reports continue to pour in of wanton killings of civilians by Indian armed forces personnel and Mukti Bahini in East Pakistan. In fact, American TV networks have shown pictures of huge crowds of people witnessing the torture and execution of people without any trial. … The Government of Pakistan would be grateful if the Government of the United States would impress upon the Government of India that the Indian occupation forces would be held responsible for the arson, loot, murder and rape by Mukti Bahini and other elements in East Pakistan. Aide Memoire, Dec. 20, 1971
  • Citizens of largely Bihari areas of Mohammedpur and Mirpur, on the outskirts of Dacca, are living in state of terror. Areas are cut off from communications and food. Lawlessness reigns. The Bihari Question, Dec. 23, 1971

Sheikh Mujib and Indira Gandhi signs the 25-year treaty of friendship and cooperation between Bangladesh and India in Dhaka.

1971 War

  • Reliable sources report that the Pakistan Army has been placed on a low-level alert; less reliable sources indicate that Indian units may have also been put on alert. Substantial numbers of Indian troops have been deployed along the border with East Bengal, and there have been indications of possible Indian deployments in the West. Exchanges of artillery and mortar fire across the eastern Indo-Pakistani border have grown in number and volume over the past few weeks. A variety of sources indicate that India is preparing for major military operations in September. The order of July 28 banning foreign relief workers in India from border areas could signal the start of accelerated military preparations. India-Pakistan: The Guns of August, July 30, 1971
  • As a result of indications of a military build-up on both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border and of an early massive increase in cross-border infiltration, we instructed Ambassador Keating to see Mrs. Gandhi and Charge’ Sober to see President Yahya (a) to propose a pullback of military forces, (b) to point out to the Indians and the Pakistanis the grave damage to our bilateral relations which would result if either provoked a conflict, (c) to indicate the importance which we attached to a political settlement with the elected leaders of East Pakistan, and (d) to ask the Indians to prevent a massive cross-border infiltration of guerrillas. … Foreign Minister Swaran Singh (Mrs. Gandhi was unavailable) said the U.S. was “distorting” the sequence of events leading up to the present crisis and emphasized the need for genuine reconciliation in East Pakistan. He nevertheless categorically stated that (1) the Mukti Bahini was not present on the Indian border in such numbers ready to march openly into India; (2) the Indian Army would not undertake diversions to cover a Mukti Bahini attack, and (3) India would not attack or make any incursion against Pakistan. He also said India would consider withdrawal of Indian forces if Pakistani forces withdrew. Foreign Secretary Kaul subsequently reaffirmed a willingness to “reconsider” the situation if Pak forces withdrew from the “threatening” positions they now occupy. Proposal for Mutual Withdrawal from Indo-Pak Borders, Oct. 20, 1971
  • He stressed that any Indian attack on Lahore would invite Pakistani retaliation on Indian cities such as Amritsar and Ferozepore. He noted Pakistani artillery of considerably longer range and higher fire power than any Indians believed to possess. He further stated Pak reconnaissance aircraft have penetrated India as far as Srinigar and returned safely despite Indian pursuit. Pakistan Military Tactics in Lahore Area, Oct. 20, 1971
  • Reports of extensive and presumably Indian-supported Mukti Bahini penetrations along East Pakistan border could represent serious escalation in Indian/Mukti Bahini pressure tactics against Pakistan. On behalf of President Amb. Keating is conveying to GOI our deep concern over this development. We are also instructing Amb. Beam in Moscow to convey to Soviets our concern over these developments and our hope that USSR will use its influence for restraint by GOI. You should seek immediate appointment with President Yahya to inform him of actions we are taking with Indians and Soviets. You should take not of Yahya letter to President (septel), expressing President’s strong appreciation for Yahya’s determination continue exercise greatest possible degree of military restraint and “avoid senseless and destructive war with India.” Secret Telegram from State Dept to Islamabad Embassy, Nov. 23, 1971
  • On November 21 an Indian Army Brigade group supported by armed helicopters ingressed into Chittagong Hill Tracts over-running our border out-posts and ingressing approximately 10 miles in our territory. On the same day, another brigade group of 23rd Indian Division launched an attack in the Belonia Salient of Noakhali District pushing 8 miles deep into Pakistan territory, supported by the rest of the Division. In the Brahmambaria subdivision also on November 21 attacks were launched by a battalion group each from 57th Division against two of our border posts at Mukandpur and Saldandi which were over-run. In Sylhet District Maulvi Bazar subdivision, two battalion groups attacked and over-ran our border out-posts at Dhalai, Atheram and Zakigauj. The battalion groups included two companies of Gurkhas. On November 21, another attack was launched in Rangpur District in the Burangamari Salient where an Indian Brigade Group penetrated 15 miles into Pakistan territory up to Nageshwari. On the same day in Jessore District, a major offensive was launched by a brigade group of 9th Indian Division supported by armor and air cover. The attack was launched opposite Chaugacha and Indian tanks penetrated about 8 miles into Pakistan territory. … As many as 12 Indian Divisions have been deployed around East Pakistan. In additon there are 38 battalions of the Indian border security force. 2nd and 5th Indian mountain divisions which were previously deploted on the borders with China have also been moved towards East Pakistan. The 8th Mountain Division (of 6 brigades) has also been moved to East Pakistan borders towards Sylhet from Nagaland where only one brigade is now left. … Mr. President, as you are aware Indian armed forces in the last few months have maintained pressure all along our Eastern borders. Apart from training, equipping and launching rebels supported by Indian Border Security force personnel into Pakistan territory, Indian artillery units have been constantly shelling areas in East Pakistan. But as I have pointed out above, in the last 3 or 4 days the Indian Armed Forces have turned from localized attacks to open and large scale warfare on so many fronts. Letter from President Yahya to President Nixon, Nov. 23, 1971
  • Lest there be any possible misunderstanding on subject of Niazi’s intentions in making his approach to me, I should like to emphasize that Niazi is appealing for our most speedy assistance in bringing his proposal to attention of Indian army authorities as quickly as humanly possible in order to reduce liklihood that beginning of assault in Dacca (which could occur beginning with daylight tomorrow) may unleash bloodbath. Today’s heavy bombing and strafing of targets in Dacca and elsewhere lend point to Niazi’s urgency. I strongly recommend that New Delhi or Calcutta or both be immediately authorized convey Niazi’s message directly to Indian army authorities asap. Niazi Cease Fire Proposal, Dec. 14, 1971
  • “Pakistan Government is putting out false allegations against Indian in and outside UN. They have alleged that India has launched massive attack with tanks and troops in East Pakistan. This allegation is false and baseless and is designed to cover up massing of Pakistani infantry, artillery and armor right up to our borders in an attempt to crush freedom movement in East Bengal and push more refugees into India. To exacerbate the situation further, President Yahya has declared a stae of emergency throughout Pakistan on November 22. This has been done following Pak offensive of November 21 supported by tanks and artillery against freedom fighters who were holding liberated area around Boyra in East Bengal five miles from Indian border. Pakistani armor under heavy artillery cover advanced to our border threatening our defensive position. Their shells fell into our territory wounding a number of our men. The local Indian military commander took appropriate action to break up Pakistani attack. In doing so he destroyed thirteen Chafee tanks whereupon the Pak troops fell back. On November 22 Pakistani forces called up an air strike of four Sabre jets on our positions. These were intercepted within Indian territory by our Gnats who destroyed three Sabre jets.” South Asia Crisis, Nov. 24, 1971
  • Current GOI attitudes toward West Pakistan are necessarily tentative pending Indo-Pak peace settlement and unfolding of President Bhutto’s declared policy and actual practice over next months. … Should Bhutto opt for postures of revanchism and revision, for military buildup, for anti-Indian alliance strategy, GOI might respond by abetting the weakening of West Pakistan from within. Indian Intentions Re Baluchistan and Pashtunistan, Jan. 17. 1972
  • NY Times and Washington Post Wednesday editions carried Schanberg/Lescaze stories attributed to Indian sources suggesting USG deliberately delayed transmission of surrender proposal from Niazi to Indian authorities. … Spokesman has emphasized that nothing like 20-odd hours lost; that only even potentially avoidable delay fell within period 1620-2300 December 14 when we unable to establish contact with Pakistanis or Indians; that delay was completely unintended and stories suggesting contrary are unfounded and inaccurate. Alleged Delay in Transmission of Surrender Proposal, Jan. 26, 1972.

See also The Report of the Commission of Inquiry – 1971 War declassified by the government of Pakistan.  Paul Wolf, 2003-2004. No copyright to original government works. For educational use only.

Saudis say No to the Prophet Muhammad [PBUH], Yes to Paris Hilton


by Omid Safi

 

More and more people are speaking out against the Saudi regime, and the way in which its Wahhabi ideology has linked together an utter disregard for the historical heritage of Muslims with an unabashed embrace of vapid capitalism.     In both Mecca and Medina, the Saudi state has already bulldozed over 90% of the Islamic monuments going back some 1400 years.     In their place, they are putting up five star hotels, parking lots, and shopping malls.

Adding injury to insult: In the same cities of Mecca and Medina, where the Wahhabi-backed Saudi state has bulldozed the historical shrines and cemeteries of the family of the Prophet, now we have the establishment of shopping malls featuring…. Paris Hilton. 

So this is what it has come to.   The so-called “Guardians of the two sanctuaries” bulldoze Islamic history, tear down the houses associated with the Prophet and his family, and in its place put up shopping malls by vapid symbols of the most crass capitalistic materialism the world has to offer.  No wonder many are talking about the transformation of Mecca into another Las Vegas.

Yes, the Saudis have bulldozed:

 

*An Ottoman Fortress overlooking and protecting Mecca, plus a whole mountain, was removed to put down the monstrosity known as the Mecca Royal Clock-Tower, aka “Big Ben on crack.

*The house the Prophet was born in, currently a library, is under consideration for destruction.

 

*The house of the Prophet’s wife, Khadija, who is referred to by Muslims as the “Mother of the Faithful” was recently torn down, and in its place a row of toilets were established.

*Old Ottoman and Abbasid columns will likely be torn down to make room for a 680 million dollar expansion of the Great Mosque.

 

*The old historic cemeteries of Jannat al-Baqi, containing the remains of the descendants of the Prophet, have been bulldozed, and nothing but a dirt mound remains of the former shrines there.

Sami Angawi, the director of the Hajj Research Center which is trying to preserve what’s left of the Islamic heritage of Saudi Arabia says of the Saudi state:

“They are turning the holy sanctuary into a machine, a city which has no identity, no heritage, no culture and no natural environment. They’ve even taken away the mountains.”

Often the excuse is used that with the global increase in the number of Muslims coming to Mecca, these expansions are necessary to accommodate these pilgrims.    However, there is no reason why the hotels for the pilgrims couldn’t be put outside the historical center of Mecca, thus preserving the monuments.

 

Furthermore, in place of these historical monuments, many of which hold a sacred significance to all Muslims outside of the Wahhabi sect, the Saudi state is building five star hotels that cost as much as $7,000 a night.     In other words, these policies are not only bulldozing the history of Islam, they are also subverting the radical egalitarian teachings of Islam most beautifully symbolized in the rich and poor standing shoulder to shoulder wearing simple unadorned clothing in the House of the One God.   Now the poor teeming masses are below, and the ultra-rich can reside in their 5-star suites looking down at the Ka’ba.    Lastly, these absurd towers even displace the very symbolism and centrality of the Ka’ba.

 

La hawla wa la quwwata illa bi Allah.

“They paved Paradise,
Put up a parking lot.”

The Saudis make a great deal of their honorific as the “Caretaker of the two Noble Sanctuaries” in Mecca and Medina.   One has to wonder about a kind of Care that says no to the legacy of Muhammad, bulldozes it, and invites Paris Hilton in its place.    These shrines, these historical sites, indeed Mecca and Medina, do not belong to the Saudi state.   They are treasures belonging to the worldwide Muslim population, indeed the whole of humanity (as the Prophet was sent as a Mercy to all the Universes).   If the Saudis insist on calling themselves the caretakers of the two sanctuaries, their first task should be in fact to take care of them–and not bulldoze them.  If they can not or will do not so, then someone else has to step up to provide care for these historical and sacred heritages of humanity.

The Prophet Muhammad once said that Islam began in this world as a stranger, and it will someday return as a stranger.

In looking at the uber-Capitalist, history-bulldozing practice of the Saudi/Wahhabi state, one cannot help but cry at the strange kind of Islam that now rules over the House of God and the home of the Prophet.

Courtesy: http://www.religionnews.com/blogs/omid-safi/saudis-say-no-to-the-prophet-muhammad-yes-to-paris-hilton

‘Dead Reckoning’ redefines history of 1971


Dead Reckoning by Sarmila Bose: This ground-breaking book chronicles the 1971 war in South Asia by reconstituting the memories of those on opposing sides of the conflict. 1971 was marked by a bitter civil war within Pakistan and war between India and Pakistan, backed respectively by the Soviet Union and the United States. It was fought over the territory of East Pakistan, which seceded to become Bangladesh. Through a detailed investigation of events on the ground, Sarmila Bose contextualises and humanises the war while analysing what the events reveal about the nature of the conflict itself. The story of 1971 has so far been dominated by the narrative of the victorious side. All parties to the war are still largely imprisoned by wartime partisan mythologies. Bose reconstructs events via interviews conducted in Bangladesh and Pakistan, published and unpublished reminiscences in Bengali and English of participants on all sides, official documents, foreign media reports and other sources. Her book challenges assumptions about the nature of the conflict, and exposes the ways in which the 1971 war is still playing out in the region.

Product code: 455601, ISBN13: 9781849040495, 288 pages, paperback, Published by C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd in 2011

indo-pakistani_war_1971_mukti_bahini training

Indo-Pak War 1971 – Training of Mukti Bahini

SARMILA BOSE is Senior Research Fellow in the Politics of South Asia at the University of Oxford. She was a political journalist in India and combines academic and media work. She was educated at Bryn Mawr College and Harvard University.

Here is a dose of sanity from Sarmila Bose:

Ms. Sarmila Bose in her paper entitled “Losing the Victims: Problems of Using Women as Weapons in Recounting the Bangladesh War” paints a picture of the Pakistani military as a disciplined force that spared women and children. She writes:

During my field research on several incidents in East Pakistan during 1971, Bangladeshi participants and eyewitnesses described battles, raids, massacres and executions, but told me that women were not harmed by the army in these events except by chance such as in crossfire. The pattern that emerged from these incidents was that the Pakistan Army targeted adult males while sparing women and children.

She also quotes the passage from the Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report that I cited above to support her assertion that so many rapes could not have occurred. 20,000-34,000 could not have raped 200,000 to 400,000 women in the space of nine months.

She states in the introduction:

That rape occurred in East Pakistan in 1971 has never been in any doubt. The question is what was the true extent of rape, who were the victims and who the perpetrators and was there any systematic policy of rape by any party, as opposed to opportunistic sexual crimes in times of war.

To try to bolster her argument that the Pakistani forces in Bangladesh could not have raped so many women, she claims:

The number of West Pakistani armed forces personnel in East Pakistan was about 20,000 at the beginning of the conflict, rising to 34,000 by December. Another 11,000 men — civil police and non-combat personnel — also held arms.

For an army of 34,000 to rape on this scale in eight or nine months (while fighting insurgency, guerrilla war and an invasion by India), each would-be perpetrator would have had to commit rape at an incredible rate.

There are numerous reports out there now which negates the well-established beliefs. The declassified US reports, Indian military officers’ account, Pakistan military officers’ account, General Niazi’s memoirs, Sharmila Bose, Hamoodurahman commission report.

Pakistan Military officers fought hard. Many foreign correspondents speak well of their bravery. It is the bravery of a Muslim soldier that Indian Military got tough fight. These Pakistani Mard-e-Momin fought so hard that they had almost regained the control of East Pakistan from the dirty hands of Mukti-Bahini. When India saw this, She then started the military action which resulted in the fall of Dhaka.

Then Mujib showed his true colors after the formation of Bangladesh with his BAKSAL party. How he became authoritative and usurped democracy is not a secret anymore. He was going to make Bangladesh part of India that he was killed timely by the Pakistani military officers (yes those Bengalis who never gave up allegiance to Pakistan. I stand in honour for them).

In the end, 1971 was an ephemeral event for Bharat. It forced Pakistan to go Nuclear, and the events of 1971 created parity between Bharat which is 9 times bigger than its neighbour, and Pakistan. It also focused Pakistan towards Central Asia, blocking trade of Bharat with the region north of the Amu Darya. The events of 1971 created turmoil in Afghanistan, and an overconfident USSR, encouraged by Bharati policy makers ventured into Afghanistan. Exactly 20 years after the events of December 16th, 1971, the USSR imploded. On 17th December 1971 the USSR ceased to exist. Pakistan had exacted its revenge on the Soviet Union for assisting Bharat. The events of 1971 also created a huge schism between Bharat and China which has not been bridged, despite the fact that China uses Bharat as a mining colony taking raw materials and exporting back shoddy Chinese goods which it cannot export to the West.

1971 was the worst form of terror in this century. The fact that the West tolerated the Bharati plan of sending 80,000 armed terrorists disguised as Pakistani soldiers into Bengal to create havoc with the local population is a fact that lives in ignominy. The West sanctified Bharati aggression and stood back and watched the disintegration of a state which the US had two Executive Defense pacts and was also tied into defense agreements in SEATO and CENTO.

1971 led to Pakistan’s JF-17 Thunder and Nuclear and Missile programs which have created colossal headaches for Bharat and others that have supported it. Because of the nuclear weapons, the US could not invade Pakistan, like it invaded Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya. The American defeat in Afghanistan is a direct result of the events of 1971 and Pakistan’s nuclear status. As the US begins to leave the area before 2014, the inevitable union of Afghanistan and Pakistan will ensure robust trade with Central Asia and strategic depth for Pakistan and Afghanistan both.

1971 halted economic growth in South Asia. Bharat was a pariah nation for a decade after that–and the entire region has still to recover from the effects. Bangladesh has half the GDP of Pakistan. Bharat has been unable to convince Pakistan to allow it a land route to Iran and Europe. The economic cost of the barrier to Bharati trade is colossal.

1971 galvanized Kashmir and tied down 800,000 Bharati soldiers and the militancy rages on affecting the rest of Bharat. The entire region became radicalized, and Asama dn the Naxals control large swathes of Bharati territory where there is no writ of the Central Government.

1971 gave rise to fundamentalism in Bharat. With the rise of the BJP and RSS, the nature of the Bharati landscape has changed. Its clash with the West is inevitable and will bring tragic results to South Asia.

The events of 1971 brought about the Oil embargo on the West with a decade of recession and malaise which radicalized America and moved it to the right. The events of 1971 radicalized Arab youth, and created the OBLs of the world. The events of 971 brought about two Martial Laws in Pakistan which led to various issues in the society and for the region. It allowed the US claim a stake in the neighbourhood.

1971 radicalized Bharati society and created militant Muslim groups in Bharat. The Indian Mujahideen and SIMI and others will continue to grow in the slum infested waters of penury and poverty.

The events of 1971 galvanized the Naxal insurrection in Bharat and the Maoist insurgency in Nepal, deeply affecting Bharat.

The vents of 1971 forced Pakistan to look westward. It now thinks of South Asia as its past the Central and West Asia as its future.

1971 consolidated Pakistan as never before, and with the discovery of Coal and Gold reserves, the country is re-evaluating its political landscape and bringing in new leadership to deal with the new realities of prosperity and growth.

In the end Bangladesh also became a belligerent state for Bharat, deeply impacting the demographics of West Bengal, which is now headed towards Muslim majority status. Bangladesh itself is in a Civil war with itself. Right after 1971, Mujib, the Indian agent declared himself dictator for life and banned all the political parties that existed. On 14th August 1974 patriotic patriots killed Mujib and threw his body in the streets for days. They killed all members of the Mujib family. In a dramatic reversal of events, Bhart’s “Rakhi Bahni” which had planned to incorporate Bangladesh into an Indian province was thrown out of Bangladesh, the treaty of friendship was torn up and Delhi’s dream of taking over Muslim Bengal never materialized.

The events of 1971 laid bare the intentions of the US, and its lack of support. This has led to a colossal tide of anti-Americanism in Pakistan and the region which is detrimental to America and Europe. Eventually China and Russia were the beneficiaries of this sort of avoidable negativity.

The Bangladeshis resurrected the Two Nation Theory, and refused to join West Bengal. Despite persecution of the Islamic forces, Bangladesh remains a deeply religious nation and has better relations with Islamabad than it has with Delhi. The suppression of Islam in Bangladesh has created a time-bomb that will affect the entire Northeast region.

The events of 1971 have led to a large presence of Chinese forces and possibly bases in Pakistan. Islamabad constructed two new ports, an effort unparalleled in the history of the world.

History of Khawarij


khawarij Islam

Al-Khawarij is plural for “Kharij”, meaning one who rebels against the acknowledged Muslim ruler whom Islam obliges every Muslim to obey and not rebel against.

This definition of Al- Khawarij, which is taken from Islamic terminology, has become a trademark for the twelve thousand Muslims who rebelled against Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, and this includes all the groups that followed their way of understanding the religion.

These groups have since been known as “Al-Khawarij” even though they carried different names.

Among those groups are: Al- Muh’akkimah, Ash- Sharat, Al- ‘Haroriyyah, An- Nawa-sib, and Al- Mariqhah.

Al-Khawarij are the people whom the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, mentioned when he said, what translated means, “A group will go astray during a time of division between Muslims. The closest among the adversaries (the side of Ali bin Abi Talib and the side of Mu’awiyah) to the Truth will kill them (the deviant group, Al-Khawarij).”

Also, the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said regarding a man who once accused him of injustice, “From among the offspring of this man there will rise a people who will read the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats (meaning it will not enter their hearts). They will kill Muslims and spare Idol-worshippers. They will deviate from Islam (as fast and clean) as an arrow pierces the game. If I live to witness their appearance, I will kill them as the people of ‘Aad (whom Allah utterly destroyed and annihilated because of their disbelief) were killed.” [Al-Bukhari & Muslim].

He further said, “Just before the end of time, young, idiotic people will rise. They will say words similar to (the good words) of the best people. They will recite the Quran, but it will not go beyond their throats. They will deviate from the religion as fast as an arrow pierces the game. If you meet them, kill them, for killing them will bring about a reward from Allah on the Day of Resurrection for whoever kills them.” [Al-Bukhari & Muslim].

The companions of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, were unanimous in their decision to fight Al-Khawarij. Also, the majority of the scholars of Islam state that it is an obligation to fight them.

Soon after they appeared as a distinct group, Al-Khawarij divided into seven groups, among them Al- Muh’akkimah who fought Ali bin Abi Talib.

Al-Khawarij accused Ali [blessings of Allah on him] of Kufr and announced their animosity towards him. They departed to Haroraa’ and chose two men as their leaders, one to lead them in prayer and the other to lead their forces in battle. When Ali realized the danger posed by these people, he sent Abdullah Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, to debate them and expose their erroneous ways. Ibn Abbas argued with them and refuted the arguments supporting the positions they took. Many of them abandoned the camp of Al-’Haroriyyah and rejoined the camp of Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib.

However, their leaders and those who remained with them refused to abandon their rebellion against the righteous Khalifah, Ali [blessings of Allah on him]. They announced that their campaign of war against their adversaries will continue. Ali bin Abi Talib then decided to meet them himself.

He called upon them to rejoin the ranks of the Khalifah and abandon their deviant ways. He also refuted their arguments and nullified their misguided way of understanding the religion.

However, they persisted in their defiance of the Khalifah and camped their forces at the area of An-Nahrawan.

On their way to An-Nahrawan, Al-Khawarij met Abdullah — the son of Khabbab bin Al-Aratt, a noble companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, and seized him. They asked him, “Who are you?” He replied, “I am Abdullah bin Khabbab, the companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam.” They said, “Narrate to us a Hadith you heard from your father who related it to the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam.” He said, “I heard my father say, ‘The Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said, ‘There will be a Fitnah (calamity and division) in which those who sit idle are better than those who walk, and those who walk are better than those who rush. Therefore, whoever has no choice but to kill or be killed, let him be killed and let him not be the killer.’” They asked him, “What do you say regarding Abu Bakr and Umar?” Abdullah said good words of praise regarding them. They said, “What do you say with regards to At- Ta’hkim (when Ali and Mu’awiyah reverted to some of the companions to judge between them in their dispute, according to the Quran and Sunnah)?”

He said, “I say that Ali has better knowledge in the Book of Allah, is more careful with the religion, and has more wisdom than you!” They said, “You do not follow the Truth and Guidance. Rather, you follow men according to their fame.” They then said to him, “This Quran (which you carry) around your neck commands us to kill you.” He said, “Whoever the Quran preserves his life, you preserve his life in turn. And whoever the Quran sheds his blood, give him death in turn.” Then, they brought Abdullah bin Khabbab closer to the river, and one of them, Musmi’ bin Qhadali, slit his throat. Then, they entered his house and killed his children and also his wife, who was pregnant, and slit open her stomach.

When Ali bin Talib heard what Al-Khawarij did to Abdullah bin Khabbab and his family, he led an expedition of four thousand soldiers to arrest those who committed this atrocity. When he reached their area, he asked them to deliver those who killed Abdullah. They said to Ali’s emissary, “We all killed him. And, furthermore, if we catch you (meaning Ali) we will kill you too.” Then, Ali prepared to fight them.

But before the battle commenced, he asked them, “What do you dislike as regards my matter?” They said, “We hate that you, when we fought with you on the Day (incident) of Al-Jamal, allowed for us their (the side of ‘Aaishah, Tal’hah, and Az-Zubair) possessions after we defeated them but did not allow us to seize their women and children as slaves. Why did you allow us to shed their blood and seize their possessions but not their women and children?” Ali said, “I only allowed you to seize their possession in return for their looting the Muslim treasury in the city of Basrah before I came to meet them (to convince them to end their rebellion). As for their women and children, they did not fight against us and they, therefore, still enjoyed the rights of Muslims who live in the Islamic state. Also, if I had allowed their women for you, who among you would have liked to take ‘Aaishah (the Prophet’s wife) as his share?” They became ashamed and silent.

Thereafter, Ali refuted all their arguments and, as a consequence, eight thousands of them rejoined his camp. However, four thousands of them insisted on fighting, led by Abdullah bin Wahb Ar-Rasibi and Thu Al-Khuwaysirah (also known as Thu Ath-Thadiyyah), whose name was Hurqus bin Zaid.

Soon afterwards, the battle between Ali and Al-Khawarij commenced, and Ali’s army defeated and killed them all except nine people.

After the battle ended, Ali ordered his soldiers to search for Thu Ath- Thadiyyah, who was then found among the dead. Ali then said, “Allah and His Messenger have said the truth,” because before he passed away, the Prophet Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam had told Ali that he should search for Thu Ath-Thadiyyah among the dead when he meets these rebels.

This sect of Al-Khawarij, also known as Al-Mu’hakkimah, considers Uthman, Ali, ‘Aaishah, Tal’hah, and Az-Zubair as Kuffar. They also oblige the removal or assassination of the Muslim ruler who does not agree with their way of understanding the religion.

Furthermore, they accept the Muslim Ummah being leaderless, allow shedding the blood of the women and children of their adversaries, consider those who fall into major sins as Kuffar, and prohibit marrying the women of those who do not follow them, because they consider them also as Kuffar.

Also, among the sub-sects of Al-Khawarij is Al-Bayhasiyyah. They are the followers of Abu Bayhas, Al- Haytham bin Jabir. They claim that knowledge is only knowing Allah and what the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, was sent with. They consider whoever falls into an action not knowing if it permissible or forbidden as Kafir, since he lacks the “knowledge”.

Al-Azariqhah is another Khawarij sub-sect. They are the followers of Nafi’ bin Al-Azraqh who was known as Abu Rashid. When he first appeared, he rebelled against Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr — a companion of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam. Many people from Oman and Al-Yamamah also joined Nafi’. They later moved to Persia and took over the area of Al- Ahwaz after they killed Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr’s deputy in that area. They soon controlled Al-Ahwaz and adjacent areas in Persia.

As is the case with other deviant sects, Al-Azariqhah consider their adversaries as Kuffar. They consider those who join their ranks as believers and all others who do not as Kuffar. Yet, they believe that whoever joins their ranks must first be tested to prove his allegiance by ordering him to kill a Muslim captive. Otherwise, he would be killed himself. Also, Al- Azariqhah permit killing the women and children of their adversaries and consider those adversaries to be bound to dwell in Hell for eternity along with their women and children. They also consider the areas that do not join them to be areas of Kufr. Furthermore, they abandon stoning the adulterer, compel women to pray and fast while in their menses, consider Muslims who commit major sins as Kuffar, and allow shedding the blood of Muslims who do not join their ranks. Yet, they prohibit shedding the blood of Jews and Christians who live under Muslim control!

This is just as the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, described them that, “They kill Muslims and spare idol-worshippers.” Also, Al-Azariqhah would cut the hand and arm of the thief, while Islam commands cutting the thief’s hand only from the wrist. They also claim that the Ayah,

‘And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Mohammad) in this worldly life.’[2:204], describes Ali bin Abi Talib, and that the Ayah,

‘And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allah.’ [2:207], describes Ibn Muljim, the cursed criminal who killed Ali, may Allah be pleased with him.

We have shown how this deviant sect, Al-Khawarij, divided among themselves, and we also clarified the major beliefs of different Khawarij sub-sects.

From this short summary of their beliefs and practices, we now know the imminent danger of their beliefs, many of which still flourish among ignorant Muslims in the present time.

The beliefs of Al-Khawarij have always been and still pose grave danger to Islam and Muslims.

We ask Allah for protection and safety from the misguided beliefs of Al-Khawarij and their likes, for He is the All-Hearer and the only One Who fulfills the Du’aa’.

THE GREAT DEBATE of Ibn Abbas’s

The story of Ibn Abbas’s (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) debate against them is in the Mustadrik of Hakam (2/150-152) in an authentic chain and upon the conditions of acceptance of Imam Muslim.

In it is the statement of Ibn Abbas:

“I come to you from the Companions of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) from amongst the Muhajireen and Ansaar to inform you of what they say. They were present when the Qur’an was revealed, and they are more knowledgeable about the revelation than you are and were present at its descending, and not a single one of you is from them. So some of them said: لا تخاصموا قريشاً Do not dispute with a person from the Quraish because

Allah says:  ‘But they are a quarrelsome people.’

Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) said:

“I never saw a people striving harder in doing deeds. Their faces were marked with lines from abstaining from sleep. It was as if their hands and knees praised them.

So those who were present proceeded, and some of them said,

“By Allah we will speak to him and debate what he says

I asked:“Why do you have resentment against the cousin of the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) his in-laws, the Muhajireen and Ansaar? They said:” (because of) Three things”

I asked: “What are they?”

They said: “As for the first one it is that he made men arbitrators in the matters of Allah. And Allah said:

Verily! The decision rests only with Allah’ [Yusuf: 67]

I said: “ This is one”

And they said:

As for the other, it is that he fought and did not take captives or booty of war. If the ones being fought are disbelievers, then indeed it is permissible to take them captive and take the booty of war, and if they were believers it would not be permissible to fight them.

I said: “ That’s two, so what is the third one?

They said: “He wiped out the title of ‘Amir al-Mu’mineen’ for himself, so he is the Amir of the disbelievers.”

I said: “Do you have anything others than these?

They said: “This suffices us”

So I said to them:

“If I read of the Qur’an and Sunnah that which refutes these claims, will you be pleased? They said: “Yes” So I said:

As for your statement: ‘A man has arbitrated in the matter of Allah’, I will read to you what has given the power of arbitration to men concerning a killed rabbit and the likes of that which is hunted which price is worth a quarter of a dirham. Allah says:

O you who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihram (for Hajj or ‘Umrah), and whosoever of you kills it intentionally, the penalty is an offering, brought to the Ka’bah, of an eatable animal (i.e. sheep, goat, cow, etc.) equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; [Maidah: 95]

I ask you by Allah, is the arbitration of men concerning a rabbit and its like of hunted animals better than their arbitration regarding bloodshed and reconciliation between themselves? And you are aware that if Allah wished he would have decided the matters himself and not left it to men. And concerning a woman and her husband Allah says:

“If you fear separation between them, appoint an arbitrator from his family and from her family; if they both wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation” [Nis’aa: 35]

So Allah has made the judgement of men a reliable Sunnah. Have I convinced you on this?” They replied: : نعم! “Yes” (I said to them):

Regarding your saying ‘You fought them, but did not seize their booty nor capture them,’ Can you capture your Mother ‘Aisha then make permissible concerning her what is permissibility concerning other female slaves.

If you say that she can be captured and treated like any of the other female slaves, you have surely committed disbelief, because she is your mother. If you say that ‘she is not our mother’ than you have also committed disbelief, for Allah says:

The Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their (believers’) mothers (as regards respect and marriage). [Ahzab: 6]

You are thus hovering between two deviations. Whichever one you go towards, you go towards misguidance.”

So some of them began to look at each other.I asked: “Have I convinced you?” They replied: “Yes” (I said to them):

And as for your statement that he wiped out the title of ‘Amir al- Mu’mineen’ for himself, I will show and bring you proof by one whom you are pleased with. I heard on the Day of Hudaybiyyah, when the treaty was being drafted by Suhail bin Amr and Abu Sufyan bin Harb, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) say to the Amir ul Mu’mineen: “Write O’ ‘Ali: ‘This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah’.” The Mushrikeen objected to this saying: “No, By Allah, if we believed that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not have fought you.” Upon this, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said: O’ Allah you know that I am the Messenger of Allah. Write O’ Ali ‘This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad bin Abdullah.’ …For I swear by Allah that the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) is better than Ali, and erasing his title did not remove his Prophethood.’

Abdullah Bin Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him and his Father) said:

So (after this), two-thousands of them (the Khawaarij) returned to the truth and the rest of them were killed upon falsehood.